Citizen Participation in the Political SystemThe resources included here are intended to map to the following learning objectives for an American Government Course:Examine how the presidential primary process works.Define gerrymandering and understand how Congressional districts are drawn.Compare and contrast different states’ rules for voting and voter registration and how these rules might influence election outcomes.Explain the Electoral College.
Civil LibertiesThe resources included here are intended to map to the following learning objectives for an American Government Course:Define the concept of civil libertiesExplain the difference between civil liberties and civil rights including identifying issues that overlap both conceptsDiscuss those civil liberties considered essential to a constitutional democracyIdentify the civil liberties protected by the U.S. ConstitutionDescribe the constitutional rights of individuals accused of a crimeExplain the historical evolution of civil liberties in American societyDescribe the role of the federal courts in interpreting and applying civil liberties
Civil RightsThe resources included here are intended to map to the following learning objectives for an American Government Course:Define and identify key moments in the history of civil rights in the U.S. (e.g. the Brown v. Board decision, Voting Rights Act, Obergefell v. Hodges, etc.) and why they are important.Understand race as a defining factor of the U.S. political party system.Compare and contrast various forms of racism, including both individual attitudes and systemic racism.Discuss the evolution of views on gender and sexuality.Examine how various groups have used political action (legal action and/or grassroots politics) to move towards legal equality.Examine current issues and how racism and sexism affect public opinion and electoral politics
CongressThe resources included here are intended to map to the following learning objectives for an American Government Course:Discuss the theoretical ideas that shaped the structure of Congress.List the constitutional powers of the legislative branch.Differentiate between the rules of the Senate and the House and how those rules affect legislative outcomes.Describe the three major policymaking functions of Congress.Discuss external and internal actors that influence the policymaking processExplain the process of a bill becoming a law.Describe the role of the committee system in the legislative process.Investigate the tension between the goals of individual members of Congress and the goals of Congressional parties and Congress as a whole.
Creation of a Federal SystemThe resources included here are intended to map to the following learning objectives for an American Government Course:Describe key features of a federalist system, both in general and within the United States constitution. Identify the ways in which federal funds influence and support state and local governmentsIdentify key moments in U.S. history where the Supreme Court has impacted federalismAnalyze how grants and unfunded mandates shape the balance power between state and federal governments.Identify the benefits and problems a federal system creates.Analyze contemporary issues where there are disagreements over which level of government should control specific policies.
Foreign Policy and SecurityThe resources included here are intended to map to the following learning objectives for an American Government Course:Define the nuclear triad.Define the European Union.Explain free trade vs. protectionism and explain how free trade affects different kinds of workers.Question the role of the United Nations and NATO.Compare and contrast hard power and soft power and the tools of U.S. diplomacy.Identify current threats and challenges to national security and global stability.Web-Based MaterialsCouncil on Foreign RelationsTrade Deficit - Census.govMigration Policy Institute TextbooksMain Text: American Government - Lumen LearningIntroductionDefining Foreign PolicyForeign Policy InstrumentsInstitutional Relations in Foreign PolicyApproaches to Foreign PolicyGlossaryAlternative Text: American Politics and Government in the Information AgeChapter 17: Foreign and National Security PoliciesAlternative Text: Boundless Political ScienceForeign PolicyForeign PolicyWho Makes U.S. Foreign Policy?The History of American Foreign PolicyChallenges of Foreign PolicyModern Foreign Policy
Foundations of American GovernmentThe resources included here are intended to map to the following learning objectives for an American Government Course:Describe key British influences on American political thought. Identify actions by the British government which created the conditions for the Declaration of Independence.Explain why Americans initially adopted a confederation as their form of government.Understand the structure and functions of the U.S. ConstitutionCompare and contrast the views and characteristics of the Federalists and Antifederalists.Explain why Antifederalists wanted a Bill of Rights.Describe the basic mechanics of the Article V Amendment Process.
Interest GroupsThe resources included here are intended to map to the following learning objectives for an American Government Course:Define what an interest group is, its main purpose and how it functionsCompare and contrast the role of political parties and interest groupsClassify the different types of interest groupsDescribe the tactics employed by interest groups to achieve their political goalsExplain the various theories of power that attempt to explain the advantages and disadvantages of interest groupsAddress the inherent conflict of individuals in a free society pursuing their own interests and the "public good"Explain Federalist No. 10 and how it relates to role of interest groups in a democratic political system
Introduction to Political Science as an Academic DisciplineThe resources included here are intended to map to the following learning objectives for an American Government Course:Define political science as an academic disciplineRecognize the links to many disciplinesIdentify its sub-disciplines of political scienceDefine American National GovernmentDefine politicsDefine power in the context of politicsIdentify models of powerDefine civic engagement
Political PartiesExplain the role political parties play in a democratic political systemDescribe the reasons for the two-party system in American politicsDiscuss the contributions of third parties in American politicsCompare and contrast a two-party system and a multiparty systemExplain the decentralized structure of political parties in American federalismDescribe the tactics employed by political parties to achieve their political goalsExplain how American political parties have evolved over time including the transition of party-centered politics to candidate-centered politics
Political Socialization and Public OpinionThe resources included here are intended to map to the following learning objectives for an American Government Course:Identify institutions that socialize voters and teach democratic norms.Describe how affective group identities (e.g. race, partisanship) drive opinions and behaviorCritique polling methodologyUnderstand how a poll is conducted and the limits of public opinion polling.Identify the factors that influence voter turnout.Discuss how political campaigns affect votersCompare and contrast how campaigns design their message versus how voters receive those messagesUnderstand campaign messagingDiscuss how individual bias limits what people know about politics.Describe how social networks influence opinions and engagement.Discuss becoming involved in the political processExamine barriers to political involvement
Public Policy (Economic, Environmental, Welfare, Education)The resources included here are intended to map to the following learning objectives for an American Government Course:Identify different forms of taxation and how they affect different economic classes.Investigate the trade-offs in various public policy decisions (e.g. Affordable Care Act vs. free market healthcare vs. socialized medicine.)Define budget deficits and differentiate it from the national debt, and identify how government debt is different from debts held by individuals.Discuss the basics of the federal budget process and major spending items.Be able to differentiate between fiscal and monetary policy and identify the key actors for both.Explain the outlines of immigration policy and be able to define key terms like: DREAMers, DACA, chain immigration, etc.
The Federal BureaucracyThe resources included here are intended to map to the following learning objectives for an American Government Course:Explain the major functions of the American federal bureaucracyClassify the types of federal agencies within the federal bureaucracyExplain the policymaking process and power of the federal bureaucracyIdentify the different internal and external actors of the federal bureaucracyDescribe how other institutions exert control and enforce accountability over the federal bureaucracyExplain how the American federal bureaucracy has evolved over time
The Federal Judicial SystemThe resources included here are intended to map to the following learning objectives for an American Government Course:Explain how the power of the federal courts has grown over time.Compare and contrast the structure of federal and state courts, as well as the types of cases they hear.Describe the judicial selection processes.Identify the factors that influence Supreme Court justices when they decide cases.Describe the ways in which the federal courts shape legal policy and decide the scope of individual rights.Summarize the structure, features, and processes of the Supreme Court.
The News MediaThe resources included here are intended to map to the following learning objectives for an American Government Course:Develop strategies to differentiate between real and fake news.Describe various forms of media bias and why they might occur.Investigate how news affects public opinion and the limits of media effects.Investigate how the evolution of cable news and social media has changed news production and consumption.
Learning ObjectivesThe resources included here are intended to map to the following learning objectives for an American Government Course:Discuss the theoretical ideas that shaped the structure of the presidency.Identify the constitutional powers of the executive branch.Explain how the presidency has grown and evolved over time.Describe some of the institutional advantages that the president has over other branches of government.Discuss the role of cabinet and other presidential staff in setting public policy.Explain the nature of the relationship the presidency has with Congress and the courts.Explain the factors that affect presidential success and failure.Describe the presidential election process and strategies pursued by presidential candidates.
Apply the sampling distribution of the sample mean as summarized by the Central Limit Theorem (when appropriate). In particular, be able to identify unusual samples from a given population.
Love is deeply biological. It pervades every aspect of our lives and has inspired countless works of art. Love also has a profound effect on our mental and physical state. A “broken heart” or a failed relationship can have disastrous effects; bereavement disrupts human physiology and may even precipitate death. Without loving relationships, humans fail to flourish, even if all of their other basic needs are met. As such, love is clearly not “just” an emotion; it is a biological process that is both dynamic and bidirectional in several dimensions. Social interactions between individuals, for example, trigger cognitive and physiological processes that influence emotional and mental states. In turn, these changes influence future social interactions. Similarly, the maintenance of loving relationships requires constant feedback through sensory and cognitive systems; the body seeks love and responds constantly to interactions with loved ones or to the absence of such interactions. The evolutionary principles and ancient hormonal and neural systems that support the beneficial and healing effects of loving relationships are described here.
Food provides the body with the nutrients it needs to survive. Many of these critical nutrients are biological macromolecules, or large molecules, necessary for life. Different smaller organic molecule (monomer) combinations build these macromolecules (polymers). What specific biological macromolecules do living things require? How do these molecules form? What functions do they serve? We explore these questions in this chapter.
As with people, it is vital for individual cells to be able to interact with their environment. In order to properly respond to external stimuli, cells have developed complex mechanisms of communication that can receive a message, transfer the information across the plasma membrane, and then produce changes within the cell in response to the message. In multicellular organisms, cells send and receive chemical messages constantly to coordinate the actions of distant organs, tissues, and cells. The ability to send messages quickly and efficiently enables cells to coordinate and fine-tune their functions.
Cell reproduction is a process of cell division that divides one cell into two identical cells. In multicellular organisms cell reproduction can be for growth, development or repair, whereas in single cell organisms it is a mechanism of reproduction. The focus of this content is the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells, regulation of the cell cycle, and consequences of a lack of regulation in the context of cancer. A summary of binary fission in prokaryotic cells is also included.
Your body has many kinds of cells, each specialized for a specific purpose. Just as we use a variety of materials to build a home, the human body is constructed from many cell types. For example, epithelial cells protect the body's surface and cover the organs and body cavities within. Bone cells help to support and protect the body. Immune system cells fight invading bacteria. Additionally, blood and blood cells carry nutrients and oxygen throughout the body while removing carbon dioxide. Each of these cell types plays a vital role during the body's growth, development, and day-to-day maintenance. In spite of their enormous variety, however, cells from all organisms—even ones as diverse as bacteria, onion, and human—share certain fundamental characteristics.
Plants and animals must take in and transform energy for use by cells. Plants, through photosynthesis, absorb light energy and form organic molecules such as glucose. Glucose has potential energy in the form of chemical energy stored in its bonds. This chapter covers the metabolic pathways of cellular respiration and describes the chemical reactions that use energy in glucose and other organic molecules to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the cell’s “energy currency” fueling virtually all energy requiring processes. The chemical reactions of cellular respiration are a series of oxidation- reduction (redox) reactions that are divided into three stages: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.
The theory of evolution is the unifying theory of biology, meaning it is the framework within which biologists ask questions about the living world. Its power is that it provides direction for predictions about living things that are borne out in ongoing experiments. The Ukrainian-born American geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky famously wrote that “nothing makes sense in biology except in the light of evolution.” He meant that the tenet that all life has evolved and diversified from a common ancestor is the foundation from which we approach all questions in biology.
This chapter outlines information on the regulation of gene expression in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This includes transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulation.
IntroductionThis chapter covers the details of the Central dogma including transcription and translation. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription are compared. Eukaryotic RNA processing is described. Protein synthesis is outlined including protein folding and modifications of the newly created proteins.
Animal evolution began in the ocean over 600 million years ago with tiny creatures that probably do not resemble any living organism today. Since then, animals have evolved into a highly diverse kingdom. But what is an animal? While we can easily identify dogs, birds, fish, spiders, and worms as animals, other organisms, such as corals and sponges, are not as easy to classify. Animals vary in complexity—from sea sponges to crickets to chimpanzees—and scientists are faced with the difficult task of classifying them within a unified system. They must identify traits that are common to all animals as well as traits that can be used to distinguish among related groups of animals. The animal classification system characterizes animals based on their anatomy, morphology, evolutionary history, features of embryological development, and genetic makeup. This classification scheme is constantly developing as new information about species arises. Understanding and classifying the great variety of living species help us better understand how to conserve the diversity of life on earth.
Meiosis is the process of cell division that produces haploid gametes. In sexual reproduction haploid gametes combine through fertilization to form a genetically recombined diploid zygote. Meiosis includes two successive divisions and processes such as crossing over and independent assortment that increase genetic variability in gametes produced. Life cycles detail the events between meiosis and fertilization that vary for different multicellular organisms.
Genetics is the study of heredity. Johann Gregor Mendel set the framework for genetics long before chromosomes or genes had been identified, at a time when meiosis was not well understood. Mendel selected a simple biological system and conducted methodical, quantitative analyses using large sample sizes. Because of Mendel’s work, the fundamental principles of heredity were revealed. We now know that genes, carried on chromosomes, are the basic functional units of heredity with the capability to be replicated, expressed, or mutated. Today, the postulates put forth by Mendel form the basis of classical, or Mendelian, genetics. Not all genes are transmitted from parents to offspring according to Mendelian genetics, but Mendel’s experiments serve as an excellent starting point for thinking about inheritance.
The cellular processes of life require energy. How do living organism obtain energy and how is it used? This Chapter answers these questions by exploring forms of energy and energy transfer within and between living organisms, as well as the role of enzymes and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in chemical reactions in cells.
This chapter begins with the details of the Chromosome Theory of Inheritance and moves onto discuss homologous recombination and the creation of new chromosomes. It also describes genetic linkage maps and how to calculate distances of genes on chromosomes. The second part of this chapter is focused on karyotypes, nondisjunction and creation of individuals with abnormal numbers of chromosomes.
Virtually all life on Earth depends on Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis uses energy in sunlight to form organic molecules such as glucose. This transformation of light energy to chemical energy provides fuel for the metabolic processes in all organisms. Photosynthesis also produces oxygen required for aerobic cellular respiration. This chapter covers light energy as part of the electromagnetic spectrum, basic structures involved in photosynthesis and the metabolic pathways of photosynthesis divided into the light-dependent reactions and the Calvin cycle.