The Biology I Course was developed through the Ohio Department of Higher Education OER Innovation Grant. The course is part of the Ohio Transfer Assurance Guides and is also named OSC003. This work was completed and the course was posted in October 2019. For more information about credit transfer between Ohio colleges and universities, please visit: www.ohiohighered.org/transfer.Team LeadCathy Sistilli Eastern Gateway Community CollegeContent ContributorsLisa Aschemeier Northwest State Community CollegeShaun Blevins Rhodes State CollegeRachel Detraz Edison State Community College Sara Finch Sinclair Community CollegeWendy Gagliano Clark State Community College AJ Snow University of Akron Wayne CollegeLibrarianAmanda Rinehart Ohio State UniversityReview TeamJessica Hall Ohio Dominican UniversitySanhita Gupta Kent State UniversityErica Mersfelder Sinclair Community College
As with people, it is vital for individual cells to be able to interact with their environment. In order to properly respond to external stimuli, cells have developed complex mechanisms of communication that can receive a message, transfer the information across the plasma membrane, and then produce changes within the cell in response to the message. In multicellular organisms, cells send and receive chemical messages constantly to coordinate the actions of distant organs, tissues, and cells. The ability to send messages quickly and efficiently enables cells to coordinate and fine-tune their functions.
Cell reproduction is a process of cell division that divides one cell into two identical cells. In multicellular organisms cell reproduction can be for growth, development or repair, whereas in single cell organisms it is a mechanism of reproduction. The focus of this content is the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells, regulation of the cell cycle, and consequences of a lack of regulation in the context of cancer. A summary of binary fission in prokaryotic cells is also included.
Plants and animals must take in and transform energy for use by cells. Plants, through photosynthesis, absorb light energy and form organic molecules such as glucose. Glucose has potential energy in the form of chemical energy stored in its bonds. This chapter covers the metabolic pathways of cellular respiration and describes the chemical reactions that use energy in glucose and other organic molecules to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the cell’s “energy currency” fueling virtually all energy requiring processes. The chemical reactions of cellular respiration are a series of oxidation- reduction (redox) reactions that are divided into three stages: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.
Meiosis is the process of cell division that produces haploid gametes. In sexual reproduction haploid gametes combine through fertilization to form a genetically recombined diploid zygote. Meiosis includes two successive divisions and processes such as crossing over and independent assortment that increase genetic variability in gametes produced. Life cycles detail the events between meiosis and fertilization that vary for different multicellular organisms.
The cellular processes of life require energy. How do living organism obtain energy and how is it used? This Chapter answers these questions by exploring forms of energy and energy transfer within and between living organisms, as well as the role of enzymes and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in chemical reactions in cells.
Virtually all life on Earth depends on Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis uses energy in sunlight to form organic molecules such as glucose. This transformation of light energy to chemical energy provides fuel for the metabolic processes in all organisms. Photosynthesis also produces oxygen required for aerobic cellular respiration. This chapter covers light energy as part of the electromagnetic spectrum, basic structures involved in photosynthesis and the metabolic pathways of photosynthesis divided into the light-dependent reactions and the Calvin cycle.
Carl Woese and his colleagues proposed that all life on Earth evolved along three lineages, called domains. Two of the three domains—Bacteria and Archaea—are prokaryotic. Prokaryotes were the first inhabitants on Earth, appearing 3.5 to 3.8 billion years ago. These organisms are abundant and ubiquitous; that is, they are present everywhere. In addition to inhabiting moderate environments, they are found in extreme conditions: from boiling springs to permanently frozen environments in Antarctica; from salty environments like the Dead Sea to environments under tremendous pressure, such as the depths of the ocean; and from areas without oxygen, such as a waste management plant, to radioactively contaminated regions, such as Chernobyl. Prokaryotes reside in the human digestive system and on the skin, are responsible for certain illnesses, and serve an important role in the preparation of many foods.
The Biology II Course was developed through the Ohio Department of Higher Education OER Innovation Grant. The course is part of the Ohio Transfer Assurance Guides and is also named OSC004. This work was completed and the course was posted in October 2019. For more information about credit transfer between Ohio colleges and universities, please visit: www.ohiohighered.org/transfer.Team LeadCathy Sistilli Eastern Gateway Community CollegeContent ContributorsLisa Aschemeier Northwest State Community CollegeShaun Blevins Rhodes State CollegeRachel Detraz Edison State Community College Sara Finch Sinclair Community CollegeWendy Gagliano Clark State Community College AJ Snow University of Akron Wayne CollegeLibrarianAmanda Rinehart Ohio State UniversityReview TeamJessica Hall Ohio Dominican UniversitySanhita Gupta Kent State UniversityErica Mersfelder Sinclair Community College
An ecosystem in biology is the first level of organization that includes biotic and abiotic (non-living) components. Ecosystem types vary widely, and ecologists study their structure and dynamics through field work and computer-based modeling. Understanding how energy flows through and materials are cycled within ecosystems.
The environment consists of numerous pathogens, usually microorganisms, that cause disease in their hosts. Components of the immune system constantly search the body for signs of these pathogens. Mammalian immune systems evolved for protection from such pathogens. These systems are composed of an extremely diverse array of specialized cells and soluble molecules that coordinate a rapid and flexible defense system.
A nervous system is an organism’s control center. It processes sensory information from outside and inside the body and controls all behaviors, from fundamental to complex. Although nervous systems throughout the animal kingdom vary in structure and complexity, each functions to maintain homeostasis.