The Endocrine System

The endocrine system consists of a series of glands that produce chemical substances known as hormones (Figure). Like neurotransmitters, hormones are chemical messengers that must bind to a receptor in order to send their signal. However, unlike neurotransmitters, which are released in close proximity to cells with their receptors, hormones are secreted into the bloodstream and travel throughout the body, affecting any cells that contain receptors for them. Thus, whereas neurotransmitters’ effects are localized, the effects of hormones are widespread. Also, hormones are slower to take effect, and tend to be longer lasting.

A diagram of the human body illustrates the locations of the thymus, several parts within the brain (pineal gland, hypothalamus, thalamus, pituitary gland), several parts within the thyroid (cartilage, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, trachea), the adrenal glands, pancreas, uterus, ovaries, and testes.
The major glands of the endocrine system are shown.

Hormones are involved in regulating all sorts of bodily functions, and they are ultimately controlled through interactions between the hypothalamus (in the central nervous system) and the pituitary gland (in the endocrine system). Imbalances in hormones are related to a number of disorders. This section explores some of the major glands that make up the endocrine system and the hormones secreted by these glands.

1 of 6