Ohio Open Ed Collaborative Biology COMING SOON

This content was created as part of an Ohio Department of Higher Education Innovation Grant to create Open Educational Resources for high enrollment courses. A team of faculty content collaborators, a librarian, and a faculty review team worked together to curate this content and assure that it meets the Transfer Assurance Guidelines for these courses. The Biology I and Biology II courses are designed to help the instructor teach all of the objectives of the courses and can be used as a whole or in pieces or modules. The full courses are entitled Biology I Course Content and Biology II Course Content. This work was completed and the courses were posted in October 2019. Please visit ohioopened.org for more information about this initiative.

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Biology I Course Content
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The Biology I Course was developed through the Ohio Department of Higher Education OER Innovation Grant. The course is part of the Ohio Transfer Assurance Guides and is also named OSC003. This work was completed and the course was posted in October 2019. For more information about credit transfer between Ohio colleges and universities, please visit: www.ohiohighered.org/transfer.Team LeadCathy Sistilli                                         Eastern Gateway Community CollegeContent ContributorsLisa Aschemeier                                 Northwest State Community CollegeShaun Blevins                                     Rhodes State CollegeRachel Detraz                                     Edison State Community College                                     Sara Finch                                          Sinclair Community CollegeWendy Gagliano                                 Clark State Community College AJ Snow                                             University of Akron Wayne CollegeLibrarianAmanda Rinehart                               Ohio State UniversityReview TeamJessica Hall                                        Ohio Dominican UniversitySanhita Gupta                                    Kent State UniversityErica Mersfelder                                 Sinclair Community College

Subject:
Life Science
Biology
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Date Added:
01/09/2019
Biology I Course Content, Biological Macromolecules, Biological Macromolecules Resources
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Food provides the body with the nutrients it needs to survive. Many of these critical nutrients are biological macromolecules, or large molecules, necessary for life. Different smaller organic molecule (monomer) combinations build these macromolecules (polymers). What specific biological macromolecules do living things require? How do these molecules form? What functions do they serve? We explore these questions in this chapter.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Date Added:
08/12/2019
Biology I Course Content, Cell Communication Introduction, Cell Communication Introduction Resources
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As with people, it is vital for individual cells to be able to interact with their environment. In order to properly respond to external stimuli, cells have developed complex mechanisms of communication that can receive a message, transfer the information across the plasma membrane, and then produce changes within the cell in response to the message. In multicellular organisms, cells send and receive chemical messages constantly to coordinate the actions of distant organs, tissues, and cells. The ability to send messages quickly and efficiently enables cells to coordinate and fine-tune their functions.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Biology I Course Content, Cell Reproduction, Cell Reproduction Resources
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Cell reproduction is a process of cell division that divides one cell into two identical cells.  In multicellular organisms cell reproduction can be for growth, development or repair, whereas in single cell organisms it is a mechanism of reproduction.  The focus of this content is the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells, regulation of the cell cycle, and consequences of a lack of regulation in the context of cancer. A summary of binary fission in prokaryotic cells is also included.

Subject:
Biology
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Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Biology I Course Content, Cell Structure, Cell Structure Resources
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Your body has many kinds of cells, each specialized for a specific purpose. Just as we use a variety of materials to build a home, the human body is constructed from many cell types. For example, epithelial cells protect the body's surface and cover the organs and body cavities within. Bone cells help to support and protect the body. Immune system cells fight invading bacteria. Additionally, blood and blood cells carry nutrients and oxygen throughout the body while removing carbon dioxide. Each of these cell types plays a vital role during the body's growth, development, and day-to-day maintenance. In spite of their enormous variety, however, cells from all organisms—even ones as diverse as bacteria, onion, and human—share certain fundamental characteristics.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Date Added:
08/12/2019
Biology I Course Content, Cellular Respiration, Cellular Respiration Resources
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Plants and animals must take in and transform energy for use by cells.  Plants, through photosynthesis, absorb light energy and form organic molecules such as glucose.  Glucose has potential energy in the form of chemical energy stored in its bonds.  This chapter covers the metabolic pathways of cellular respiration and describes the chemical reactions that use energy in glucose and other organic molecules to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP).  ATP is the cell’s “energy currency” fueling virtually all energy requiring processes.  The chemical reactions of cellular respiration are a series of oxidation- reduction (redox) reactions that are divided into three stages: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.  

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Biology I Course Content, Evolution and the Origin of Species, Evolution and the Origin of Species Resources
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The theory of evolution is the unifying theory of biology, meaning it is the framework within which biologists ask questions about the living world. Its power is that it provides direction for predictions about living things that are borne out in ongoing experiments. The Ukrainian-born American geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky famously wrote that “nothing makes sense in biology except in the light of evolution.” He meant that the tenet that all life has evolved and diversified from a common ancestor is the foundation from which we approach all questions in biology.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Date Added:
08/21/2019
Biology I Course Content, Introduction to Animal Diversity, Introduction to Animal Diversity Resources
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Animal evolution began in the ocean over 600 million years ago with tiny creatures that probably do not resemble any living organism today. Since then, animals have evolved into a highly diverse kingdom. But what is an animal? While we can easily identify dogs, birds, fish, spiders, and worms as animals, other organisms, such as corals and sponges, are not as easy to classify. Animals vary in complexity—from sea sponges to crickets to chimpanzees—and scientists are faced with the difficult task of classifying them within a unified system. They must identify traits that are common to all animals as well as traits that can be used to distinguish among related groups of animals. The animal classification system characterizes animals based on their anatomy, morphology, evolutionary history, features of embryological development, and genetic makeup. This classification scheme is constantly developing as new information about species arises. Understanding and classifying the great variety of living species help us better understand how to conserve the diversity of life on earth.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Date Added:
08/04/2019
Biology I Course Content, Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction, Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Resources
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Meiosis is the process of cell division that produces haploid gametes.  In sexual reproduction haploid gametes combine through fertilization to form a genetically recombined diploid zygote.  Meiosis includes two successive divisions and processes such as crossing over and independent assortment that increase genetic variability in gametes produced.  Life cycles detail the events between meiosis and fertilization that vary for different multicellular organisms.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Biology I Course Content, Mendel's Experiments and Heredity, Mendel's Experiments and Heredity Resources
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Genetics is the study of heredity. Johann Gregor Mendel set the framework for genetics long before chromosomes or genes had been identified, at a time when meiosis was not well understood. Mendel selected a simple biological system and conducted methodical, quantitative analyses using large sample sizes. Because of Mendel’s work, the fundamental principles of heredity were revealed. We now know that genes, carried on chromosomes, are the basic functional units of heredity with the capability to be replicated, expressed, or mutated. Today, the postulates put forth by Mendel form the basis of classical, or Mendelian, genetics. Not all genes are transmitted from parents to offspring according to Mendelian genetics, but Mendel’s experiments serve as an excellent starting point for thinking about inheritance.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Date Added:
08/04/2019
Biology I Course Content, Metabolism, Metabolism Resources
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The cellular processes of life require energy.  How do living organism obtain energy and how is it used?  This Chapter answers these questions by exploring forms of energy and energy transfer within and between living organisms, as well as the role of enzymes and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in chemical reactions in cells.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Biology I Course Content, Photosynthesis Introduction, Photosynthesis Introduction Resources
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Virtually all life on Earth depends on Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis uses energy in sunlight to form organic molecules such as glucose.  This transformation of light energy to chemical energy provides fuel for the metabolic processes in all organisms.  Photosynthesis also produces oxygen required for aerobic cellular respiration. This chapter covers light energy as part of the electromagnetic spectrum, basic structures involved in photosynthesis and the metabolic pathways of photosynthesis divided into the light-dependent reactions and the Calvin cycle.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Biology I Course Content, Phylogenies and the History of Life, Phylogenies and the History of Life Resources
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In scientific terms, phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship of an organism or group of organisms. A phylogeny describes the organism's relationships, such as from which organisms it may have evolved, or to which species it is most closely related. Scientists must collect accurate information that allows them to make evolutionary connections among organisms. It is a highly dynamic field of biology because phylogenetic modeling concepts are constantly changing as new information is collected.  Over the last several decades, new research has challenged scientists’ ideas about how organisms are related.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Date Added:
08/04/2019
Biology I Course Content, Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea, Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea Resources
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Carl Woese and his colleagues proposed that all life on Earth evolved along three lineages, called domains. Two of the three domains—Bacteria and Archaea—are prokaryotic. Prokaryotes were the first inhabitants on Earth, appearing 3.5 to 3.8 billion years ago. These organisms are abundant and ubiquitous; that is, they are present everywhere. In addition to inhabiting moderate environments, they are found in extreme conditions: from boiling springs to permanently frozen environments in Antarctica; from salty environments like the Dead Sea to environments under tremendous pressure, such as the depths of the ocean; and from areas without oxygen, such as a waste management plant, to radioactively contaminated regions, such as Chernobyl. Prokaryotes reside in the human digestive system and on the skin, are responsible for certain illnesses, and serve an important role in the preparation of many foods.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Date Added:
08/22/2019
Biology I Course Content, Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes, Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes Resources
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The plasma membrane, the cell membrane, has many functions, but the most basic one is to define the cell's borders and keep the cell functional. The plasma membrane is selectively permeable. This means that the membrane allows some materials to freely enter or leave the cell, while other materials cannot move freely, but require a specialized structure, and occasionally, even energy investment for crossing.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Date Added:
08/12/2019
Biology I Course Content, The Chemical Foundation of Life, The Chemical Foundation of Life Resources
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 Elements in various combinations comprise all matter, including living things. Some of the most abundant elements in living organisms include carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and phosphorus. These form the nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids that are the fundamental components of living matter. Biologists must understand these important building blocks and the unique structures of the atoms that comprise molecules, allowing for cells, tissues, organ systems, and entire organisms to form.All biological processes follow the laws of physics and chemistry, so in order to understand how biological systems work, it is important to understand the underlying physics and chemistry.  The properties of water and the formation of hydrogen bonds are key to understanding living processes. Recognizing the properties of acids and bases is important, for example, to our understanding of the digestive process. Therefore, the fundamentals of physics and chemistry are important for gaining insight into biological processes.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Date Added:
08/12/2019
Biology I Course Content, The Endocrine System, The Endocrine System Resources
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An animal’s endocrine system controls body processes through the production, secretion, and regulation of hormones, which serve as chemical “messengers” functioning in cellular and organ activity and, ultimately, maintaining the body’s homeostasis. The endocrine system plays a role in growth, metabolism, and sexual development.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Date Added:
08/22/2019
Biology I Course Content, The Evolution of Populations, The Evolution of Populations Resources
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People did not understand the mechanisms of inheritance, or genetics, at the time Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace were developing their idea of natural selection. Scholars rediscovered Mendel’s work in the early twentieth century, and over the next few decades scientists integrated genetics and evolution in what became known as the modern synthesis—the coherent understanding of the relationship between natural selection and genetics that took shape by the 1940s. Natural selection can affect a population’s genetic makeup, and, in turn, this can result in the gradual evolution of populations. In the early twentieth century, biologists in the area of population genetics began to study how selective forces change a population through changes in allele and genotypic frequencies.  Adaptive evolution is the process by which natural selection increases the frequency of beneficial alleles in the population, while decreasing the frequency of deleterious alleles.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Date Added:
08/21/2019
Biology I Course Content, The Immune System, The Immune System Resources
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The environment consists of numerous pathogens, usually microorganisms, that cause disease in their hosts. Components of the immune system constantly search the body for signs of these pathogens. Mammalian immune systems evolved for protection from such pathogens. These systems are composed of an extremely diverse array of specialized cells and soluble molecules that coordinate a rapid and flexible defense system.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Date Added:
08/22/2019
Biology I Course Content, The Nervous System, The Nervous System Resources
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A nervous system is an organism’s control center: it processes sensory information from outside (and inside) the body and controls all behaviors—from eating to sleeping to finding a mate.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Date Added:
08/22/2019
Biology I Course Content, The Study of Life, The Study of Life Resources
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Viewed from space, Earth offers no clues about the diversity of life forms that reside there. Scientists believe that the first forms of life on Earth were microorganisms that existed for billions of years in the ocean before plants and animals appeared. The mammals, birds, and flowers so familiar to us are all relatively recent, originating 130 to 250 million years ago. The earliest representatives of the genus Homo, to which we belong, have inhabited this planet for only the last 2.5 million years, and only in the last 300,000 years have humans started looking like we do today.  The study of life is a vast field that delves into the past, present, and future.  This module will provide an introduction into the science of Biology as well as a look into its major themes and concepts.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Date Added:
08/12/2019
Biology II Course Content
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The Biology II Course was developed through the Ohio Department of Higher Education OER Innovation Grant. The course is part of the Ohio Transfer Assurance Guides and is also named OSC004. This work was completed and the course was posted in October 2019. For more information about credit transfer between Ohio colleges and universities, please visit: www.ohiohighered.org/transfer.Team LeadCathy Sistilli                                         Eastern Gateway Community CollegeContent ContributorsLisa Aschemeier                                 Northwest State Community CollegeShaun Blevins                                     Rhodes State CollegeRachel Detraz                                     Edison State Community College                                     Sara Finch                                          Sinclair Community CollegeWendy Gagliano                                 Clark State Community College AJ Snow                                             University of Akron Wayne CollegeLibrarianAmanda Rinehart                               Ohio State UniversityReview TeamJessica Hall                                        Ohio Dominican UniversitySanhita Gupta                                    Kent State UniversityErica Mersfelder                                 Sinclair Community College

Subject:
Life Science
Biology
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Date Added:
01/09/2019
Biology II Course Content, Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System, Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System Resources
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All living organisms need nutrients to survive. While plants can obtain the molecules required for cellular function through the process of photosynthesis, most animals obtain their nutrients by the consumption of other organisms. At the cellular level, the biological molecules necessary for animal function are amino acids, lipid molecules, nucleotides, and simple sugars. However, the food consumed consists of protein, fat, and complex carbohydrates. Animals must convert these macromolecules into the simple molecules required for maintaining cellular functions, such as assembling new molecules, cells, and tissues. The conversion of the food consumed to the nutrients required is a multistep process involving digestion and absorption. This module will explore these ideas as well as the components of various digestive systems found in the animal kingdom.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Date Added:
08/13/2019
Biology II Course Content, Animal Reproduction and Development, Animal Reproduction and Development Resources
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Animal reproduction is necessary for the survival of a species. In the animal kingdom, there are innumerable ways that species reproduce. Asexual reproduction produces genetically identical organisms (clones), whereas in sexual reproduction, the genetic material of two individuals combines to produce offspring that are genetically different from their parents. During sexual reproduction the male gamete (sperm) may be placed inside the female’s body for internal fertilization, or the sperm and eggs may be released into the environment for external fertilization.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Date Added:
08/12/2019
Biology II Course Content, Cell Communication Introduction, Cell Communication Introduction Resources
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As with people, it is vital for individual cells to be able to interact with their environment. In order to properly respond to external stimuli, cells have developed complex mechanisms of communication that can receive a message, transfer the information across the plasma membrane, and then produce changes within the cell in response to the message. In multicellular organisms, cells send and receive chemical messages constantly to coordinate the actions of distant organs, tissues, and cells. The ability to send messages quickly and efficiently enables cells to coordinate and fine-tune their functions.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Biology II Course Content, Cell Reproduction, Cell Reproduction Resources
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Cell reproduction is a process of cell division that divides one cell into two identical cells.  In multicellular organisms cell reproduction can be for growth, development or repair, whereas in single cell organisms it is a mechanism of reproduction.  The focus of this content is the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells, regulation of the cell cycle, and consequences of a lack of regulation in the context of cancer. A summary of binary fission in prokaryotic cells is also included.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Biology II Course Content, Cell Structure, Cell Structure Resources
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Your body has many kinds of cells, each specialized for a specific purpose. Just as we use a variety of materials to build a home, the human body is constructed from many cell types. For example, epithelial cells protect the body's surface and cover the organs and body cavities within. Bone cells help to support and protect the body. Immune system cells fight invading bacteria. Additionally, blood and blood cells carry nutrients and oxygen throughout the body while removing carbon dioxide. Each of these cell types plays a vital role during the body's growth, development, and day-to-day maintenance. In spite of their enormous variety, however, cells from all organisms—even ones as diverse as bacteria, onion, and human—share certain fundamental characteristics.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Date Added:
08/12/2019
Biology II Course Content, Cellular Respiration, Cellular Respiration Resources
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Plants and animals must take in and transform energy for use by cells.  Plants, through photosynthesis, absorb light energy and form organic molecules such as glucose.  Glucose has potential energy in the form of chemical energy stored in its bonds.  This chapter covers the metabolic pathways of cellular respiration and describes the chemical reactions that use energy in glucose and other organic molecules to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP).  ATP is the cell’s “energy currency” fueling virtually all energy requiring processes.  The chemical reactions of cellular respiration are a series of oxidation- reduction (redox) reactions that are divided into three stages: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Biology II Course Content, Conservation Biology and Biodiversity, Conservation Biology and Biodiversity Resources
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The core threats to biodiversity are human population growth and unsustainable resource use. Current significant threats to biodiversity include habitat loss, overharvesting/overexploitation, invasive species, and climate change. Conservation biology works to counteract the loss of biodiversity due to these threats. These methods include legislative framework such as the ESA and MBA, setting aside preserves, habitat restoration, and captive breeding programs.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Date Added:
08/02/2019
Biology II Course Content, Ecology and the Biosphere, Ecology and the Biosphere Resources
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Ecology is the study of the interactions of living organisms with their environment. One core goal of ecology is to understand the distribution and abundance of living things in the physical environment. Attainment of this goal requires the integration of scientific disciplines inside and outside of biology, such as mathematics, statistics, biochemistry, molecular biology, physiology, evolution, biodiversity, geology, and climatology.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Date Added:
07/27/2019
Biology II Course Content, Ecosystems, Ecosystems Resources
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An ecosystem in biology is the first level of organization that includes biotic and abiotic (non-living) components.  Ecosystem types vary widely, and ecologists study their structure and dynamics through field work and computer-based modeling.  Understanding how energy flows through and materials are cycled within ecosystems.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Biology II Course Content, Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction, Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Resources
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Meiosis is the process of cell division that produces haploid gametes.  In sexual reproduction haploid gametes combine through fertilization to form a genetically recombined diploid zygote.  Meiosis includes two successive divisions and processes such as crossing over and independent assortment that increase genetic variability in gametes produced.  Life cycles detail the events between meiosis and fertilization that vary for different multicellular organisms.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative