The Endomembrane System and Proteins

Section Summary

The endomembrane system includes the nuclear envelope, lysosomes, vesicles, the ER, and Golgi apparatus, as well as the plasma membrane. These cellular components work together to modify, package, tag, and transport proteins and lipids that form the membranes.

The RER modifies proteins and synthesizes phospholipids in cell membranes. The SER synthesizes carbohydrates, lipids, and steroid hormones; engages in the detoxification of medications and poisons; and stores calcium ions. Sorting, tagging, packaging, and distributing lipids and proteins take place in the Golgi apparatus. Budding RER and Golgi membranes create lysosomes. Lysosomes digest macromolecules, recycle worn-out organelles, and destroy pathogens.