Components and Structure

Free Response

Why is it advantageous for the cell membrane to be fluid in nature?

Hint:

The fluid characteristic of the cell membrane allows greater flexibility to the cell than it would if the membrane were rigid. It also allows the motion of membrane components, required for some types of membrane transport.

Why do phospholipids tend to spontaneously orient themselves into something resembling a membrane?

Hint:

The hydrophobic, nonpolar regions must align with each other in order for the structure to have minimal potential energy and, consequently, higher stability. The fatty acid tails of the phospholipids cannot mix with water, but the phosphate “head” of the molecule can. Thus, the head orients to water, and the tail to other lipids.

How can a cell use an extracellular peripheral protein as the receptor to transmit a signal into the cell?

Hint:

Peripheral proteins can bind to other molecules in the extracellular space. However, they cannot directly transmit a signal to the inside of the cell since they do not have a transmembrane domain (region that goes through the plasma membrane to the inside of the cell). They must associate with integral membrane proteins in order to pass the signal to the inside of the cell.