Regulation of Gene Expression

Section Summary

While all somatic cells within an organism contain the same DNA, not all cells within that organism express the same proteins. Prokaryotic organisms express most of their genes most of the time. However, some genes are expressed only when they are needed. Eukaryotic organisms, on the other hand, express only a subset of their genes in any given cell. To express a protein, the DNA is first transcribed into RNA, which is then translated into proteins, which are then targeted to specific cellular locations. In prokaryotic cells, transcription and translation occur almost simultaneously. In eukaryotic cells, transcription occurs in the nucleus and is separate from the translation that occurs in the cytoplasm. Gene expression in prokaryotes is mostly regulated at the transcriptional level (some epigenetic and post-translational regulation is also present), whereas in eukaryotic cells, gene expression is regulated at the epigenetic, transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels.