Free Response

The Mediterranean landscape along the sea shore is dotted with pines and cypresses. The weather is not cold, and the trees grow at sea level. What evolutionary adaptation of conifers makes them suitable to the Mediterranean climate?


The trees are adapted to arid weather, and do not lose as much water due to transpiration as non-conifers.

What are the four modern-day phyla of gymnosperms?


The four modern-day phyla of gymnosperms are Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, and Gnetophyta.