Population Dynamics and Regulation

Modern Theories of Life History

By the second half of the twentieth century, the concept of K- and r-selected species was used extensively and successfully to study populations. The r- and K-selection theory, although accepted for decades and used for much groundbreaking research, has now been reconsidered, and many population biologists have abandoned or modified it. Over the years, several studies attempted to confirm the theory, but these attempts have largely failed. Many species were identified that did not follow the theory’s predictions. Furthermore, the theory ignored the age-specific mortality of the populations which scientists now know is very important. New demographic-based models of life history evolution have been developed which incorporate many ecological concepts included in r- and K-selection theory as well as population age structure and mortality factors.