Subject:
Communication, Public Relations, Speaking and Listening
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Tags:
Ocm0132
License:
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial
Language:
English
Media Formats:
eBook

Education Standards (1)

Introductions & Conclusions Resources

Introductions & Conclusions Resources

Learning Objectives

  • Focus on elements of a speech introduction
  • Select among attention strategies and devices 
  • Relate topic and purpose
  • Establish speaker credibility
  • Preview the main points through an internal preview
  • Focus on elements of a speech conclusion
  • Signal the end of a speech and summarize without redundancy
  • Bring the speech full circle (paralleling introductory strategies)
  • End a speech decisively, meaningfully, and memorably

(This Module meets the TAG/OCM 013 for a Public Speaking Course; Learning Outcome 2)

Recommended Textbook Resources

Stand up, Speak Out: The Practice and Ethics of Public SpeakingStand Up, Speak Out Book Cover 

This textbook has comprehensive chapters, covering both introductions and conclusions.  For introductions, Chapter 9 addresses the learning objectives, demonstrating  the functions of introductions, with elements of an introduction to a speech:  attention strategies and devices, relation of the topic and purpose, establishment of credibility, and  preview of the main points.   For conclusions, Chapter 11 addresses the learning objectives, demonstrating the functions of conclusions, with elements of a conclusion for a speech:  signal of the speech end and summary, then bringing the speech full circle, with an ending that is decisive, meaningful, and memorable.

 

Chapter 9 - Introductions Matter: How to Begin a Speech Effectively

9.1 The Importance of an Introduction

9.2 The Attention Getter: The First Step of an Introduction

9.3 Putting it Together: Steps to Complete your Introduction

9.4 Analyzing an Introduction

9.5 Chapter Exercises 

Chapter 11 - Concluding with Power 

11.1 Why Conclusions Matter

11.2 Steps of a Conclusion

11.3 Analyzing a Conclusion

11.4 Chapter Exercises

Stand up, Speak Out: The Practice and Ethics of Public SpeakingStand Up, Speak Out Book Cover 

This textbook has comprehensive chapters, covering both introductions and conclusions.  For introductions, Chapter 9 addresses the learning objectives, demonstrating  the functions of introductions, with elements of an introduction to a speech:  attention strategies and devices, relation of the topic and purpose, establishment of credibility, and  preview of the main points.   For conclusions, Chapter 11 addresses the learning objectives, demonstrating the functions of conclusions, with elements of a conclusion for a speech:  signal of the speech end and summary, then bringing the speech full circle, with an ending that is decisive, meaningful, and memorable.

 

Chapter 9 - Introductions Matter: How to Begin a Speech Effectively

9.1 The Importance of an Introduction

9.2 The Attention Getter: The First Step of an Introduction

9.3 Putting it Together: Steps to Complete your Introduction

9.4 Analyzing an Introduction

9.5 Chapter Exercises 

Chapter 11 - Concluding with Power 

11.1 Why Conclusions Matter

11.2 Steps of a Conclusion

11.3 Analyzing a Conclusion

11.4 Chapter Exercises

Supplemental Content/Alternative Resources

Alternative Textbook Resource:

Exploring Public Speaking

This textbook has a comprehensive chapter dedicated to INTRODUCTIONS and CONCLUSIONS for speech preparation.  This all ties directly to the learning objectives.  This textbook is available online at no cost to the reader.  (3rd ed.) Chapter 8 – page 138 – 160.

Video Resources:

How to Write a Speech: Speech Introduction Demo 

This source provides a speech introduction demonstration in a brief video, delivered with tips from a public speaking professor.

How to Write a Speech: Speech Conclusion Demo

This source provides a speech conclusion demonstration in a brief video, delivered with tips from a public speaking professor.

Topic Application Section

An Experience in Generating Attention-Getting Devices

This classroom activity is an exercise in generating attention-getting devices for the introduction to a speech.  Time needed is variable, and there are no materials required, other than a few newspaper pages, as well as pen and paper.  Instruction:  Divide students into small groups of 3-5 students.  Provide each with a page to a newspaper, which has multiple articles.  Have each group work collectively develop several attention-getters for two articles on the newspaper page.  Have each group vote upon their list of generated attention-getters, and “star” the most popular.  Debriefing:  This exercise focuses on the development of attention-getters, as well as a variety of attention-getting devices, for speech introductions.  The list of attention-getter examples generated by the students can then be used to define each type of attention-getting device, as noted in this list:  reference to subject, reference to audience, quotation, reference to current events, historical reference, anecdote, startling statement, question, humor, personal reference, or reference to the occasion.  Discussion can be engaging, posing questions such as this, for example:  Did the group generate examples of a variety of attention-getting devices?  If so, which ones were most common?  Or, this question, for example:  After the group voted to determine the most popular attention-getter, why do you think it most popular?  The learning objective of attention strategies and devices are addressed in this exercise, as well as small group communication by working collaboratively in student groups.

An Experience in Generating Concluding Devices

 This classroom activity is an exercise in generating concluding devices for the conclusion to a speech.  Time needed is variable, and there are no materials required, other than a few newspaper pages, as well as pen and paper.  Instruction:  Divide students into small groups of 3-5 students.  Provide each with a page to a newspaper, which has multiple articles.  Have each group work collectively develop several concluding devices, used to offer a final thought for the audience to remember, for two articles on the newspaper page.  Have each group vote upon their list of generated final thoughts, and “star” the most popular.  Debriefing:  This exercise focuses on the development of concluding thoughts, as well as a variety of concluding devices, for speech conclusions.  The list of concluding-thought examples generated by the students can then be used to define each type of concluding device, as noted in this list:  a challenge, quotation, summary, visualization of the future, an appeal for action, inspiration, advice, a solution, a question, or a reference to the audience.  Discussion can be engaging, posing questions such as this, for example:  Did the group generate examples of a variety of concluding devices?  If so, which ones were most common?  Or, this question, for example:  After the group voted to determine the most popular concluding thought, why do you think it most popular?  The learning objective of ending a speech decisively, meaningfully, and memorably are addressed in this exercise, as well as small group communication by working collaboratively in student groups.

End of Section Review

Summary

This educational lesson focused on development of introductions and conclusions.  An introduction sets the stage for the speech, while the conclusion wraps up the speech.  The introduction learning objectives are met beginning with an explanation of an attention-getting device, used to capture an audience’s attention.  There are 11 different devices suggested, based upon appropriateness, topic, purpose, and occasion.  They are as follows:  reference to subject, reference to audience, quotation, reference to current events, historical reference, anecdote, startling statement, question, humor, personal reference, or reference to the occasion.  Next, the introduction is advised to relate the device to the topic and purpose as noted in the thesis statement, followed by an establishment of speaker credibility by assuring the audience of competence, trustworthiness, and goodwill, as well as an announcement of an internal preview, foreshadowing the main points in the upcoming speech.  The conclusion learning objectives are met beginning with a signal that the end of the speech is near.  Helping the listener remember the content of the speech, the speech is capped off in the conclusion with a restatement of the thesis statement, followed by an internal summary, which reviews the main points.  Finally, the last element of the conclusion is a concluding device, used to offer a final thought for the audience to remember.  There are 10 different devices suggested:  a challenge, quotation, summary, visualization of the future, an appeal for action, inspiration, advice, a solution, a question, or a reference to the audience.  The resulting conclusion of the speech is developed to be meaningful and memorable.  All of the introduction and conclusion content shared in the materials provided should produce an audience-friendly beginning and end to a speech.

Key Terms: 

  1. introduction
  2. competence
  3. trustworthiness
  4. goodwill
  5. attention-getting device
  6. anecdote
  7. response question
  8. rhetorical question
  9. thesis statement
  10. conclusion
  11. serial position effect
  12. primacy
  13. recency
  14. concluding device
  15. appeal for action
  16. inspiration
  17. advice

Review Questions: 

After reviewing this section, you should be able to answer the following questions:

  1. What are four guidelines for selecting an attention-getting device?
     
  2. What are three examples of attention-getting devices?
     
  3. What are three aspects of establishing credibility?
     
  4. What is the first element of an effective conclusion?
     
  5. What two items should you recap before using a concluding device?
     
  6. What are three examples of concluding devices?

Questions for Critical Thought and Discussion:

  1. How would your rank the following elements of a speech introduction—attention-getting device, topic and purpose statement, establishment of credibility, and preview of main points—in terms of importance and why?
     
  2. What could be the possible negative outcomes of a speech that lacks an attention-getting device?
     
  3. Which element of establishing credibility—competence, trustworthiness, and goodwill—is most important and why?
     
  4. How would your rank the following elements of a speech conclusion—signal of the end of the speech, restatement of thesis, review of main points, and concluding device—in terms of importance and why?
     
  5. If using a question to conclude a speech as a memorable and meaningful last mention, what is more effective—a response question or a rhetorical question—and why?