Subject:
Communication, Public Relations, Speaking and Listening
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Tags:
Ocm0132, Persuasion, Persuasive Organization, Persuasive Speaking, Persuasive Speech
License:
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0
Language:
English
Media Formats:
eBook, Text/HTML, Video

Education Standards (4)

Persuasive Speaking Resources

Persuasive Speaking Resources

Overview

Understanding persuasion and persuasive speaking can be challenging. Persuasive speeches typically center on questions of fact, value, or policy and involve changing your audience's attitudes, values, or beliefs. Your success as a persuasive speaker depends on your ability to adapt messages to your audience. This section explores the complexity of persuasion, the different types of persuasive speeches, the common organizational patterns used in persuasive speaking, as well as how to construct a persuasive speech.

Learning Objectives

  • Understand the importance and process of persuasion
  • Identify the purposes and types of persuasive speeches
  • Develop an audience-centered persuasive speech
  • Select and implement effective persuasive organizational patterns
  • Effectively construct a persuasive speech

(This Module meets the TAG/OCM 013 for a Public Speaking Course; Learning Outcomes 2 & 8)

Recommended Textbook Resources

Stand Up, Speak Out: The Practice and Ethics of Public SpeakingStand Up, Speak Out Book Cover

Section 17.1 - Persuasion: An Overview

Section 17.2 - Types of Persuasive Speeches

Section 17.3 - Organizing Persuasive Speeches

 

 

 

Exploring Public Speaking, 3rd EditionExploring Public Speaking, 3rd Edition Book Cover

Section 13.1 - Why Persuade?

Section 13.2 - A Definition of Persuasion

Section 13.3 - Why is Persuasion Hard?

Section 13.5 - Constructing a Persuasive Speech

 

 

Chapter seventeen of “Stand up, Speak Out” covers the basics of persuasion, types of persuasive speeches, and persuasive organizational patterns.  In “Exploring Public Speaking”, 3rd edition, the sections provided explore persuasion more deeply as well as discuss how to construct propositions of fact, value, and policy. All learning objectives are covered with the content provided. These chapter sections were selected by the team for their comprehensive topic coverage; clear, engaging language, thorough supporting sources from some of the leading scholars in the field; and of course, the publisher’s commitment to open educational resources.

Stand Up, Speak Out: The Practice and Ethics of Public SpeakingStand Up, Speak Out Book Cover

Section 17.1 - Persuasion: An Overview

Section 17.2 - Types of Persuasive Speeches

Section 17.3 - Organizing Persuasive Speeches

 

 

 

Exploring Public Speaking, 3rd EditionExploring Public Speaking, 3rd Edition Book Cover

Section 13.1 - Why Persuade?

Section 13.2 - A Definition of Persuasion

Section 13.3 - Why is Persuasion Hard?

Section 13.5 - Constructing a Persuasive Speech

 

 

Chapter seventeen of “Stand up, Speak Out” covers the basics of persuasion, types of persuasive speeches, and persuasive organizational patterns.  In “Exploring Public Speaking”, 3rd edition, the sections provided explore persuasion more deeply as well as discuss how to construct propositions of fact, value, and policy. All learning objectives are covered with the content provided. These chapter sections were selected by the team for their comprehensive topic coverage; clear, engaging language, thorough supporting sources from some of the leading scholars in the field; and of course, the publisher’s commitment to open educational resources.

Supplemental Content/Alternative Resources

Video Resources

Persuasive Speaking Basics A Brief Tutorial on Creating and Delivering Persuasive Speeches (What it Means to Persuade, Functions and Types of Persuasive Speaking, and Selecting Topics)

Persusaive Speaking Strategies Strategies and Common Organizational Patterns for Creating and Delivering Persuasive Speeches

Monroe's Motivated Sequence Examples for Persuasive Speeches

How to Organize and Write a Persuasive Speech Problem, Solution, Benefits, Order of Main Points

Comparative Advantage Persuasive Speech Style 

Problem & Solution Persuasive Speech Styles

How to Write an Introduction for Persuasive Speeches

Introduction Examples for Persuasive Speeches

Questions of Value in Persuasive Speeches

Questions of Fact in Persuasive Speeches

Questions of Policy in Persuasive Speeches

Cognitive Dissonance Theory: A Crash Course Video

Cognitive Dissonance - Animated Music Video Explaining Justification

The Elaboration Likelihood Model

The Importance of Knowing Your Audience - Persuasion and Culture

Topic Application Section

Classroom Activity - Distinguishing Fact, Value, and Policy
(15-25 minutes depending on length of class discussion)
Split class into pairs or small groups.  On a slide, board, or a handout, give students a list of general topics. For example: recycling, pets, music, marijuana, vaping, family, etc.  Have each group select one topic from the list. Once each group has claimed a topic, instruct each group to work together to create three different specific purposes for a persuasive speech using that topic. One specific purpose must be a question of fact, one a question of value, and one a question of policy. Allow students 10-15 minutes.  Have each pair/group present their specific purposes to the class.
Then, begin a classroom discussion with the following prompts:

  • Were the differences between fact, value, and policy clear?
  • How much did the direction of the topic change depending on the type of claim?
  • What other variations came to mind as you listened to how other groups crafted their specific purposes?

End of Section Review

Topic Summary
Knowing how to craft a persuasive message is challenging but essential in the modern world. Researchers have created a multitude of theories that help explain how and why people are persuaded, and as public speakers, we need to be well versed in our understanding of them. Additionally, we need to be aware of what type of claims we are advocating in order to understand the best method of persuasion for our particular audience. Last, organizing our thoughts in persuasive organizational patterns can lead us to be more likely to persuade an audience.


Key Terms

  1. Persuasion
  2. Proposition
  3. Attitude
  4. Value
  5. Belief
    1. Core
    2. Dispositional
  6. Social Judgement Theory
    1. Latitude of Rejection
    2. Latitude of Noncommitment
    3. Latitude of Acceptance
  7. Cognitive Dissonance
    1. External Justification
    2. Internal Justification
  8. Elaboration Likelihood Model
    1. Central Route Processing
    2. Peripheral Route Processings
  9. Definitional Claims
  10. Factual Claims
  11. Policy Claims
  12. Value Claims
  13. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
  14. Problem-Cause-Solution Format
  15. Comparative Advantages Format


Review Questions

  1. Why should people study persuasion?
  2. What are the main differences between speaking to inform and speaking to persuade?
  3. Audience analysis and adaptation are important in all speeches but they are particularly crucial when persuading.  Why?
  4. How is Social Judgement Theory related to persuasive speaking?
  5. Why is justification important in Cognitive Dissonance Theory?
  6. How is central route processing different from peripheral route processing?
  7. What are the four common persuasive claims?
  8. What are the five steps of Monroe’s Motivated Sequence?

Critical Thinking/Discussion Questions

  1. If you were preparing a persuasive speech to convince your audience to stop using one-time use plastic straws, which organizational pattern would you use and why?
  2. Looking at the big picture of public speaking, from the very first sections through now, what elements must you consider when preparing a persuasive speech?
  3. Out of all the persuasive theories presented in this section, which do you think will be the most important to consider when speaking to persuade and why?