Material Type:
Community College / Lower Division, College / Upper Division, College Credit Plus
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
OSC0032, Pant Form and Physiology
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Education Standards (3)

Plant Form and Physiology Resources

Plant Form and Physiology Resources


Plants are as essential to human existence as land, water, and air. Without plants, our day-to-day lives would be impossible because without oxygen from photosynthesis, aerobic life cannot be sustained. From providing food and shelter to serving as a source of medicines, oils, perfumes, and industrial products, plants provide humans with numerous valuable resources.  When you think of plants, most of the organisms that come to mind are vascular plants. These plants have tissues that conduct food and water, and they have seeds. Seed plants are divided into gymnosperms and angiosperms. Gymnosperms include the needle-leaved conifers susch spruce, fir, and pine. Their seeds are not enclosed by a fleshy fruit. Angiosperms, also called flowering plants, constitute the majority of seed plants. They include broadleaved trees (such as maple), vegetables (such as potatoes), grasses, and plants known for the beauty of their flowers (roses and daffodils, for example).  In this module we will be exploring the different structures found within plants, the different physiological processes performed by plants, the different mechanisms of transport that occur within plants, and various response mechanisms used by plants.

Learning Objectives

Learning Objectives (Biology II TAGs)

II.5: Describe the general organization of the animal body and vascular plants.

II.7: Compare the structure of nutrient procurement and processing systems in plants and animals.

II.8: Describe the structure and function of the nervous system, the musculoskeletal system, the respiratory system, and the mechanisms of internal transport and regulation in various organisms.

V.1: Explain how regulatory mechanisms at the level of the whole organism ensure balance in living systems that interact continuously with their environments; compare regulatory mechanisms within and across species.

Recommended Textbook Resources

Chapter 30: Plant Form and PhysiologyBiology 2e

OpenStax: Biology 2e

While individual plant species are unique, all share a common structure: a plant body consisting of stems, roots, and leaves. They all transport water, minerals, and sugars produced through photosynthesis through the plant body in a similar manner. All plant species also respond to environmental factors, such as light, gravity, competition, temperature, and predation.  Chapter 30, Plant Form and Physiology, will delve into all of those ideas and provide a solid foundation for understading plant biology.  

Student Assessment Activities

Student Assessment Activities are below; instructors can also Download a Plant Form and Physiology Word File or View the Plant Form and Physiology Student Activity Google Doc.

Project 1:

Complete the end of the chapter “Review Questions”.  Make sure to answer each question thoroughly and include page numbers from the text where the answers can be found.  Be prepared to discuss your answers in a group setting during class.


Project 2:

Complete the end of the chapter “Critical Thinking Questions” according to your group number.  You will be sharing your responses with members from the other groups during class. (This is a modified “Jigsaw” method.  To use this “Jigsaw” have everyone meet in their groups for a specified amount of time. While they are discussing their responses/ideas separate everyone into new groups so that each new group has a representative from the original group.  Have the new groups meet for a specified amount of time to share their responses/ideas. This way each person holds a piece of the overall puzzle.)

Group 1: 27-30

Group 2: 31-34

Group 3: 35-38

Group 4: 39-43


Project 3:

Divide the class into small groups.  Provide each group with a large piece of paper (butcher paper, poster board, etc.).  Have each group create a table that compares monocots and dicots from memory. Once finished have the groups check their resources to see if their tables contain any inaccuracies or missing information.


Project 4:

Draw and describe the path of a water molecule starting in the soil outside of a root and ending in the atmosphere outside of a leaf.


Project 5:

Type a research paper on how our understanding of plant sensory systems and responses have impacted the fields of agriculture and industry.