Material Type:
Community College / Lower Division, College / Upper Division
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
  • Muscular System
  • OSC0032
  • Skeletal System
  • License:
    Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike
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    Education Standards

    The Musculoskeletal System Resources

    The Musculoskeletal System Resources


    The muscular and skeletal systems provide support to the body and allow for a wide range of movement. The bones of the skeletal system protect the body’s internal organs and support the weight of the body. The muscles of the muscular system contract and pull on the bones, allowing for movements as diverse as standing, walking, running, and grasping items.

    Learning Objectives

    Learning Objectives (Biology II TAGs)

    II. Structure and Function SLOS

    1. Relate levels of biological organization from cells, the basic unit of life, to the organism and the relationship of structure to function at all levels of biological organization.

    2. Explain the basic structures and fundamental processes of life at the molecular,

    cellular, and organismal levels.

    8. Describe the structure and function of the nervous system, the musculo-skeletal system, the respiratory system, and the mechanisms of internal transport and regulation in various organisms.*


    Recommended Textbook Resources

    Chapter 38: The Musculoskeletal System Biology 2e

    OpenStax: Biology 2e

    Chapter 38, The Musculoskeletal System, covers two organs systems of animals. It covers organs and two organs systems that make up the organism. It covers basic structures and processes of the muscular and skeletal systems. 


    Student Assessment Activities

    Student Assessment Activities are below; instructors can also Download the Musculoskeletal System Student Activities #1 Word File or View the Musculoskeletal System Student Activity #1 Google Doc.

    Assessment Activity #1: 


    Distribute the “How Do Scallops Swim” case study to class ~1 week prior to in-class case study time. Have students get into groups of 3-4 students or assign students into groups of 3-4 students. Have students discuss the case study amongst their group. Each group submits a paper with their respective group’s answers to each of the questions. 

    You can also distribute the case study part by part so the case study work can encompass several weeks (weeks dependent on how often class meets, etc.). Give students ~20-30 minutes per class to work on the respective part. 

    Or this case study can be distributed as the instructor sees fit. 

    Use the following link to access this case study: How Do Scallops Swim?


    Instructors can also Download the Musculoskeletal System Student Activities #2 Word File or View the Musculoskeletal System Student Activity #2 Google Doc.

    Assessment Activity #2


    Carry out the scientific method connection on page 1198 of the Biology, 2e text. Have students perform the activities and answer the questions. 

    Decalcification of Bones 

    Question: What effect does the removal of calcium and collagen have on bone structure? 

    Background: Conduct a literature search on the role of calcium and collagen in maintaining bone structure. Conduct a literature search on diseases in which bone structure is compromised. 

    Hypothesis: Develop a hypothesis that states predictions of the flexibility, strength, and mass of bones that have had the calcium and collagen components removed. Develop a hypothesis regarding the attempt to add calcium back to decalcified bones. 

    Test the hypothesis: Test the prediction by removing calcium from chicken bones by placing them in a jar of vinegar for seven days. Test the hypothesis regarding adding calcium back to decalcified bone by placing the decalcified chicken bones into a jar of water with calcium supplements added. Test the prediction by denaturing the collagen from the bones by baking them at 250°C for three hours. 

    Analyze the data: Create a table showing the changes in bone flexibility, strength, and mass in the three different environments. 

    Report the results: Under which conditions was the bone most flexible? Under which conditions was the bone the strongest? 

    Draw a conclusion: Did the results support or refute the hypothesis? How do the results observed in this experiment correspond to diseases that destroy bone tissue?