Material Type:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
  • Encoding
  • Episodic Memory
  • Long-term Memory
  • Memory
  • Retrieval
  • Semantic Memory
  • Sensory Memory
  • Short-term Memory
  • Storage
  • License:
    Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial
    Media Formats:

    Education Standards

    Memory - Course Map and Recommended Resources


    How to Use this Guide

    This guide provides information and resources on teaching learning concepts in an Introduction to Psychology course. All resources are Open Access and can be downloaded or added to a Course Management System (LMS) via the hyperlinks.


    This section introduces students to different ways to conceptualize memory..  Specifically, students will be introduced to memory processes, theories of memory, forgetting, and ways to examine memory.  

    • Memory is a core topic in the APA’s recommendations for Strengthening General Psychology, and is also a core topic in the Ohio TAG learning objectives. This topic is required for all Introduction to Psychology courses in Ohio as part of Pillar 2: Cognitive.  The Ohio TAG requirements call for a second topic to be included from this pillar, which can be Cognition, Perception, or Intelligence.

    Learning Objectives

    1. Explain the three processes of memory (Encoding, Storage, Retrieval)
    2. Understand strategies to improve encoding
    3. Explain and distinguish the three types of memory (sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory)
    4. Distinguish between implicit and explicit memory
    5. Distinguish between episodic and semantic memory
    6. Understand the serial position effect
    7. Explain flashbulb memories, traumatic memories, repressed memories, misinformation effect
    8. Understand why people forget

    Cross Cutting Themes


    1. Discuss some of the ethical concerns that should be addressed by therapists working with individuals claiming to have recovered memories of childhood abuse.
    2. Is it ethical for researchers to implant false memories in their subjects for the sake of advancing scientific knowledge of memory?


    1. How is real-life amnesia different than amnesia that is portrayed on TV and in film?
    2. Have students think about how what they have learned in this chapter can help them improve their study habits.  

    Variations in Human Functioning

    1. Describe how living with amnesia impacts not only the individual affected, but their family members as well. (Use the experiences of Patient HM or Clive Wearing to guide answers.)
    2. How would having hyperthymesia (a highly superior autobiographical memory) impact an individual’s everyday life?  Ask students if they would want such an ability and why or why not.
    3. How can the use of memory strategies, such as mnemonics, help individuals to increase retention?

    Cultural and Social Diversity

    1. Discuss how culture shapes how we remember our past, and in particular, how early we can remember our earliest childhood memories.  

    Recommended Resources


    This is an OpenStax introduction to basic memory concepts.  It covers memory processes, memory stores, and retrieval.

    Parts of the Brain Involved with Memory

    This section of the OpenStax memory chapter discusses the parts of the brain that are involved with memory, and also touches briefly on false memories.  

    Problems with Memory

    This section of the OpenStax memory chapter covers problems with memory, including amnesia, eyewitness testimony, the misinformation effect, recovered/repressed memories, and forgetting.

    Ways to Enhance Memory

    This section of the OpenStax memory chapter covers ways to enhance memory.  One of the most important parts of this section discusses how to study effectively.  

    Memory (Encoding, Storage, Retrieval)

    This is a Noba resource that covers all of the typical topics with regard to memory.  It also includes links to several Noba Student Video award winning videos to help explain topics such as the misinformation effect and flashbulb memories.   

    Forgetting and Amnesia 

    This is a Noba resource that discusses forgetting and amnesia.  It discusses everyday forgetting and how forgetting can actually be helpful in the long run as we attempt to retain information effectively.

    Supplemental Resources

    Brain Case Study: Patient HM

    This is a site that provides a brief summary of the research surrounding Patient HM.

    The Man Who Couldn't Remember

    This is a more in-depth look at Patient HM.  Questions that students may ask about Patient HM’s life experiences are answered in a thorough, understandable manner.  

    Penny Test

    This is a link to a quick self-experiment students can do to test their own recognition of the correct fact of a penny, and leads into a nice discussion on some of the problems with eyewitness testimony.

    The Man with the Seven Second Memory (Video)

    This is a link to a video about Clive Wearing.  It is a long (48 minute) documentary, but small segments could probably be extracted to illustrate the difficulties Clive experiences because of his amnesia.

    Go Cognitive 

    This website provides links to interviews conducted with several individual on varied memory topics.

    How We Make Memories (Video)

    This is a link to a Crash Course video on how we form memories, and includes a brief introduction to Clive Wearing.

    Remembering and Forgetting (Video) 

    This is a link to a Crash Course video that talks about explicit memories, memory processes, and forgetting.

    Memory in the Classroom

    This is a link to resources for good class activities.