Subject:
Psychology
Material Type:
Module
Level:
Community College / Lower Division, College / Upper Division
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Tags:
Intelligence, oss0152
License:
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial
Language:
English
Media Formats:
Text/HTML

Education Standards (1)

Intelligence - Course Map & Recommended Resources

Overview

How to Use this Guide

This guide provides information and resources on instroducting the field of psychology as a science in an Introduction to Psychology course.  All resources are Open Access and can be downloaded or added to a Course Management System (LMS) via the hyperlinks.

Introduction

This section will explore intelligence. In line with the APA recommendations and the Ohio TAG, Intelligence falls in Pillar 2 (Cognitive) along with Cognition, Memory, and Perception. Memory is required in Ohio TAG courses, so courses that cover Intelligence in addition to Memory have met the requirement for that pillar. Thus, it may not be necessary to cover Intelligence as a full topic in your course if you already cover Cognition or Perception.

 

 

Learning Objectives

  1. Define intelligence
  2. Understand the history of intelligence testing

  3. Understand current intelligence testing

  4. Identify the mean and standard deviation for IQ

  5. Discuss extremes of intelligence including giftedness and intellectual disability

  6. Discuss group differences in intelligence

  7. Discuss theories of intelligence

    1. Explain Spearman’s general intelligence

    2. Explain Sternberg’s triarchic theory

    3. Explain Gardner’s multiple intelligences

  8. Discuss appropriate use of intelligence testing

Cross Cutting Themes

Ethics

  1. Discuss the ethical issues involved with the measurement of intelligence, including statistical issues, extremes in intelligence, and group differences.

Application

  1. Discuss how to serve those with cognitive delays

  2. Discuss the different areas in which intelligence test scores can be utilized

  3. Discuss the value of intelligence testing

Variations in Human Functioning

  1. Discuss the group differences found on intelligence tests

  2. Discuss the implications of low intelligence test scores

  3. Discuss how to serve those with cognitive delays

  4. Discuss the impact of  heritability/genetics/gene x environment interactions on intelligence.

Cultural and Social Diversity

  1. Discuss the ethical issues involved with intelligence testing

  2. Discuss the implications of the nature of intelligence

  3. Discuss the group differences found on intelligence tests

  4. Discuss the implications of low intelligence test scores

  5. Discuss the different areas in which intelligence test scores can be utilized

  6. Discuss how to serve those with cognitive delays

Recommended Resources

Theories of Intelligence

This is the opening section of Intelligence in OpenStax.  It defines intelligence highlighting Spearman’s theory as well as Cattell’s theory of Crystallized and Fluid intelligence.  In addition, Sternberg’s and Gardner’s theories are discussed as well.

History of Intelligence Testing

This section of the Intelligence chapter in OpenStax discusses the history of intelligence testing, highlighting the work of Binet, Terman, and Wechsler.

Current Intelligence Testing

This is the middle section of the Intelligence chapter in OpenStax.  It discusses current intelligence testing issues, including the appropriate use of intelligence testing.

Statistics

This section of the Intelligence chapter in OpenStax discusses the mean and standard deviation for IQ.

Extremes in Intelligence

This section of the Intelligence chapter in OpenStax discusses the extremes of intelligence including giftedness and intellectual disability.

Group Differences in Intelligence

There are two resources provided here.  The first is OpenStax which discusses racial differences in intelligence test scores, highlighting Jensen’s work.  The second resource is from the intelligence section of the NOBA collection, focusing on gender differences in intelligence test scores.

Supplemental Resources

Video and Online Resources

Controversy of Intelligence (Video)

This is CrashCourse video #23 by Hank Green on the Controversy of Intelligence. It discusses concepts such as Spearman’s G, factor analysis, Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory, Emotional Intelligence, Binet, Stern, and Terman. 

Brain vs. Bias (Video)

This is CrashCourse video #24 by Hank Green titled Brains vs. Bias.  It discusses the WAIS and the WISC, aptitude and achievement tests, standardization, bell curve, reliability, validity, twin studies, racial and gender differences.  

Derek (Video)

This video from CBS 60 minutes highlights Derek Paravicini, a musical genius who is also intellectually disabled. It's hard to explain a case like Derek's with a single factor theory of intelligence.

Williams Syndrome Association

Relevant to social and emotional intelligence, Williams Syndrome is a very rare genetic condition resulting in many cardiovascular problems, learning disabilities, and developmental delays. Individuals with Williams Syndrome are exceptionally warm, compassionate, highly social, and often musical.  For more information, see the Williams Syndrome Association website.

The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) has a helpful FAQ:

We're More Alike than Different (Video)

Videos from the National Down Syndrome Congress highlight individuals with Down Syndrome, who have many of the same experiences and aspirations as everyone else.

Textbook Resources

The following book written by Richard Nisbett, a University of Michigan psychology professor, explores the impact of environment on intelligence.  It is a very helpful resource for your discussion on heredity vs. environment’s influence on one’s intelligence. Nisbett, R.E. (2009). Intelligence and How to Get It: Why Schools and Culture Count. W.W. Norton and Company: New York.

Claude Steele, a social psychologist from Columbia University writes about his research on stereotypes and identity. This book is adds to the discussion on racial and gender differences in test scores. Steele, C. (2010). Whistling Vivaldi and Other Clues to How Stereotypes Affect Us. W.W. Norton & Company: New York.

Walter Mischel is a professor in psychology at Columbia University.  In this book he designer of the Marshmallow Test, discusses how self-control and the ability to delay gratification can significantly impact our lives.  Here he discusses the impact on self control has on many of the challenges we face on a regular basis. The book serves as an excellent resource when discussing both the theories of intelligence and the current issues involved with intelligence testing. Mischel, W. (2014). The Marshmallow Test: Mastering self-control. New York: Little, Brown and Co.

Class Activities

Griggs, R. A. (2000). A one minute “intelligence” test. Teaching of Psychology, 27, 132-135.