The Introduction to Sociology Course was developed through the Ohio Department of Higher Education OER Innovation Grant. This work was completed and the course was posted in September 2018. The course is part of the Ohio Transfer Module and is also named OSS021. For more information about credit transfer between Ohio colleges and universities, please visit: www.ohiohighered.org/transfer.Team LeadIrene Petten Columbus State Community CollegeContent Contributors Dee Malcuit Clark State Community CollegeKwaku Oboso-Mensah Lorain County Community CollegeAnjel Stough-Hunter Ohio Dominican UniversityLibrarianSherri Saines Ohio UniversityReview TeamEric Jorrey Central Ohio Technical College
OER Text MaterialSociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, Sections: 12.3The content in section 12.3 will clearly state the assumptions of disengagement, activity, and conflict theories of aging and critically assess these three sociologicaly theories as they relate to aging.
OER Text MaterialSociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, Sections: 12.4This section of the chapter will describe the differences in life expectancy around the world.List the potential problems associated with the growing proportion of older individuals in poor nations.Explain the evidence for inequality in U.S. life expectancy.Sociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, Sections: 12.5This section of the chapter describes the four biological changes associated with aging.List any three steps that individuals can try to undertake to achieve successful aging.
OER Text MaterialSociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, Sections: 12.1-12.6The study of aging is so important and popular that it has its own name, gerontology. Social gerontology is the study of the social aspects of aging (Hooyman & Kiyak, 2011).The scholars who study aging are called gerontologists. The people they study go by several names, most commonly “older people,” “elders,” and “the elderly.” The latter term is usually reserved for those 65 or older, while “older people” and “elders” (as the headline of the opening news story illustrates) often include people in their 50s as well as those 60 or older.
OER Text MaterialsSociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, Sections: 12.6This section will cover:Presenting a brief sociodemographic profile of the U.S. elderly.Discuss the several problems experienced by the U.S. elderly.Describe how the social attitudes of older Americans generally differ from those of younger Americans.
OER Text MaterialSociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, Chapter 12: “Aging and the Elderly” The perception of aging can vary from one society to another, and it can also change over time within any given society. Gerontologists have investigated these cross-cultural and historical differences. By understanding aging in other societies and also in our past, they say, we can better understand aging in our own society. To acquaint you with “other ways of growing old” (Amoss & Harrell, 1981), we discuss briefly some of the cross-cultural and historical evidence on the perception and experience of aging.
OER Text materialTheoretical Perspectives on CultureChapter 3, subsection 3.4. According to functionalists, societies need culture to exist. Cultural norms function to support the fluid operation of society, and cultural values guide people in making choices. In addition, culture exists to meet its members’ basic needs. Conflict theorists view social structure as inherently unequal, based on power differentials related to issues like class, gender, race, and age. For a conflict theorist, culture is seen as reinforcing issues of "privilege" for certain groups based upon race, sex, class, etc. Symbolic interactionism is mostly concerned with the face-to-face interactions between members of society. Interactionists see culture as being created and maintained by the ways people interact and in how individuals interpret each other’s actions.
OER Text materialWhat is Culture?Chapter 3, subsection 3.1Culture is defined as shared beliefs, values, and practices, that participants in a society must learn. Sociologically, we examine in what situation and context certain behavior is expected, and in which situations perhaps it is not. Rules are created and enforced by people who interact and share culture. Culture consists of thoughts (expectations about personal space, for example) and tangible things (bus stops, trains, and seating capacity).General Comments:Types of sanction should be clearly identifiedSymbol should be defined in more detail. It should be made clear that symbols, like the American flag, represent something else. Thus, the American flag is not just a piece of cloth; rather, it represents American pride, etc.
OER Text materialElements of CultureChapter 3, subsection 3.2. This learning objective is addressed variously in the chapter. For example, under elements of culture, beliefs, values, idea culture, real culture, norms, etc. are addressed. Values are defined as a culture’s standard for discerning what is good and just in society. Values are deeply embedded and critical for transmitting and teaching a culture’s beliefs. Beliefs are the tenets or convictions that people hold to be true.
OER Text MaterialPop Culture, Subculture, and Cultural ChangeChapter 3, subsection 3.3. Human behavior and worldview are impacted by culture and cultural changes. For example, people are influenced by both high culture and popular culture. Due to the integration of international trade and finance markets (globalization) people have adopted different cultures. Alongside the process of globalization is diffusion, or the spread of material and nonmaterial culture. While globalization refers to the integration of markets, diffusion relates to a similar process in the integration of international cultures.
OER Text materialCultural ChangeChapter 3, subsection 3.3. The concepts of innovation, discovery, and invention are used to explain cultural change. An innovation refers to an object or concept’s initial appearance in society—it is innovative because it is markedly new. There are two types of innovation: discovery and invention. Discoveries make known previously unknown but existing aspects of reality. Inventions result when something new is formed from existing objects or concepts—when things are put together in an entirely new manner.
This objective is lacking in the main text. Please see the recommended reading by the chapter author below in Section 1.
OER Text materialWhat Is Culture? Chapter 3, subsection 3.1. A subsection of this section notes that culture consists of thoughts (expectations about personal space, for example) and tangible things (bus stops, trains, and seating capacity). Then material culture is defined as the objects or belongings of a group of people. Examples of material culture are given as metro passes, bus tokens, automobiles, stores, and the physical structures where people worship. Nonmaterial culture, in contrast, consists of the ideas, attitudes, and beliefs of a society. Material and nonmaterial aspects of culture are linked, and physical objects often symbolize cultural ideas. A metro pass is a material object, but it represents a form of nonmaterial culture, namely, capitalism, and the acceptance of paying for transportation. Clothing, hairstyles, and jewelry are part of material culture, but the appropriateness of wearing certain clothing for specific events reflects nonmaterial culture. It is noted that material and nonmaterial aspects of culture can vary subtly from region to region. As people travel farther afield, moving from different regions to entirely different parts of the world, certain material and nonmaterial aspects of culture become dramatically unfamiliar.
OER Text materialCrime and the LawChapter 7, subsection 7.3. At this subsection various types of crimes – violent crimes, non-violent crimes, street crimes, corporate crimes, and victimless crimes – are compared and contrasted. In addition, primary and secondary deviance are compared and contrasted.
OER Text materialDeviance and ControlChapter 7. In this chapter, several concepts related to deviance are defined and explained. Such concepts include deviance, social control, sanctions, and social order.General Comments on this Section:Data on hate crime is too old – 2009/10Two typos in the chapter at pages 142 AND 144The concept of “Formal sanctions” is used in the chapter. It should be added that formal sanctions are the same as lawsA Table is needed for Merton’s Mode of Adaptation
OER Text materialCrime and the LawChapter 7, subsection 7.3. The society’s solution to the problems of deviance is through the criminal justice system. This involves the use of the police, the courts, and the corrections system. The police are a civil force in charge of enforcing laws and public order at a federal, state, or community level. A court is a system that has the authority to make decisions based on law. The corrections system, more commonly known as the prison system, is charged with supervising individuals who have been arrested, convicted, and sentenced for a criminal offense.
OER Text materialDeviance and ControlChapter 7, subsection 7.1. In this subsection examples are given of behaviors that were considered deviant some time ago but now considered normal, and vice versa. For example, in some states the use of marijuana which was considered deviants is now considered normal. Throughout the chapter, examples of changes in the definition of deviance are given.
OER Text materialTheoretical Perspectives on DevianceChapter 7, subsection 7.2. In this section, functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism are used to explain deviance. Theories under functionalism are Émile Durkheim’s The Essential Nature of Deviance, Robert Merton’s Strain Theory, Social Disorganization Theory, and Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay’s Cultural Deviance Theory. Under conflict theory are theories like Karl Marx’s An Unequal System, and C. Wright Mills’ The Power Elite. Under symbolic interactionism are Labeling Theory, Edwin Sutherland’s Differential Association, and Travis Hirschi’s Control Theory.
OER Text Material Understanding and Changing the Social WorldThis section provides a very basic overview of Functionalist (most detailed), Conflict (thin) and Symbolic Interactionist (thin) perspectives on education.
OER Text materialSociology: Understanding and Changing the Social WorldThis section provides a general overview of the history of education in the United States. It covers how education moved from a the exclusive remit of the wealthy to a public education system due to the needs of an industrial economy and a desire to establish and reinforce “American” values over all others.
OER Text materialSociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, Sections: 16.316.3 reviews the inequalities of educational attainment, the impact education has on income and the influence of education on moral and social attitudes. Sociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, Sections:, 16.4.1, 16.4.2, and 16.4.516.4.1 reviews how education perpetuates inequality. 16.4.2 reviews the historical and contemporary existence of segregation in schools. 16.4.5 explores why we see social inequalities reflected in the higher education system.
OER Text materialSociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, Section: 220.127.116.11.1 U.S.-centric exploration of the relationship between gender and education.Sociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, Section: 16.4.316.4.3 Brief summary of single sex education and the influence on girls ‘and women’s achievement and self-esteem.
OER Text MaterialIntroduction to Sociology 2e, Derived from Introduction to Sociology by OpenStaxThis section of Open Stax describes the differences in educational resources around the world and explores differences in access to education from a global perspective. It highlights the importance of social background in both educational attainment and in access to education. (The main text does not adequately cover this area.)
OER Text Material Sociology and the Sociological Perspective, Section: 1.1 (The Sociological Perspective)Define the sociological perspective.Provide examples of how Americans may not be as “free” as they think.Explain what is meant by considering individuals as “social beings.”Sociology and the Sociological Perspective, Section: 1.2 (Understanding Society)Explain the debunking motif.Define the sociological imagination.Explain what is meant by the blaming-the-victim ideology.
OER Text MaterialsSociology and the Sociological Perspective, Section 1.2 (Understanding Society)Explain the debunking motif.Define the sociological imagination.Explain what is meant by the blaming-the-victim ideology.
OER Text MaterialsSociology and the Sociological Perspective, Section 1.3 (Theoretical Perspectives within Sociology)Distinguish macro approaches in sociology from micro approaches.Summarize the most important beliefs and assumptions of functionalism and conflict theory.Summarize the most important beliefs and assumptions of symbolic interactionism and exchange theory.
OER Text materialOpen Stx Chapter 12 section 2Chapter 11 in Sociology: Understanding the Changing Social World does not include an application of the three major sociological perspectives to issues of gender and sexuality. Open stax Chapter 12 section 2 does a much better job explaining gender from the major sociological perspectives including feminism. In this section there is also a discussion of doing gender, which was lacking in our core text.Sociological Perspectives on Gender StratificationHere is another source that provides a good overview of the sociological perspectives on gender.
OER Text materialSociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World Chapter 11 Section 1Chapter 11 Section 1 compares sex and gender, differentiates biological and cultural influences on gender, and discusses gender socialization. Primary and secondary sex characteristics are defined. A definition of femininity and masculinity is given, but this definition is weak. There is an excellent discussion of how biology and society influence difference between girls and boys. There is also a somewhat detailed description of Margaret Mead’s work and the influence of culture on gender. There is no discussion of doing gender. This a significant weakness and supplemental material should be included to capture the notion of how gender is performed and maintained through everyday interactions. Additionally, masculinity and femininity as a continuum should be explored or at least mentioned.
OER Text materialSex and Sexuality: Open Stax Chapter 12 Section 3Summary: Open Stax chapter 12 section 3 defines key terms related to sexuality, examines view of sexuality cross-nationally, and applies the sociological perspectives to sexuality including a discussion of queer theory.
OER Text materialSociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World Chapter 11 Section 1Chapter 11 Section 1 compares sex and gender, differentiates biological and cultural influences on gender, and discusses gender socialization. The section on socialization includes a description of agents of socialization and a discussion of how family, peers, schools, mass media, and religion serve as agents of socialization. It provides a clear and fairly comprehensive coverage of gender socialization.
OER Text materialSociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World Chapter 11 Section 3, Gender InequalityThe final section discusses the “triple burden” and includes data on the intersection of gender and race on workplace inequality. Intersectionality is not used in this textbook. This is a major deficit.Theories of Race and EthnicityA brief definition of intersection theory.
Sociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World Chapter 11 Section 3Chapter 11 section 3 covers income and workplace inequality. An overview of the gender pay gap is given. The data is a bit dated and will need to be updated with current material. Sexual harassment is discussed. There is a brief discussion of gender differences in housework. This section also includes a discussion of sexual orientation and inequality. There is no discussion of the gender division of labor, the double day or second shift. More material on gender and the family needs to be included. Several suggestions for addressing this gap are provided in the supplemental material for this learning outcome.
OER Text MaterialGlobal ClassificationImmanuel Wellerstein’s World Systems Approach is used to compare and contrast core nations, peripheral nations, and semi-peripheral nations. Core nations are dominant capitalist countries, highly industrialized, technological, and urbanized. Peripheral nations have very little industrialization; what they do have often represents the outdated castoffs of core nations or the factories and means of production owned by core nations. They typically have unstable governments, inadequate social programs, and are economically dependent on core nations for jobs and aid. Semi-peripheral nations are in-between nations, not powerful enough to dictate policy but nevertheless acting as a major source for raw material and an expanding middle-class marketplace for core nations, while also exploiting peripheral nations.