OER Text MaterialGlobal Inequality, Chapter 10This chapter defines global inequality as the concentration of resources in certain nations that negatively affect the opportunities of individuals in poorer and less powerful countries. It uses the functionalist, conflict, and the symbolic interactionist perspectives to explain global inequality. It is an issue of why some countries are wealthy and others are poor.
OER Text MaterialTheoretical Perspectives on Global Stratification, Section 10.3In this section, two theories are used to explain global inequality. The first one, modernization theory, states that low-income countries are affected by their lack of industrialization and can improve their global economic standing through an adjustment of cultural values and attitudes to work, industrialization, and other forms of economic growth. The second theory, dependency theory, states that global inequality is primarily caused by core nations (or high-income nations) exploiting semi-peripheral and peripheral nations (or middle-income and low-income nations). The exploitation creates a cycle of dependence.
OER Text MaterialGlobal Stratification and Classification, Section 10.2 Global Wealth and Poverty, Section 10.2Factors such as gender inequality, prejudice and discrimination, sexism, and economic hierarchy are used to explain global inequality.
OER Text MaterialTheoretical Perspectives on Global StratificationIn this subsection, it is noted that the consequences of poverty are often also the causes. Some of the consequences of global inequality are inadequate healthcare, limited education, and the inaccessibility of birth control. The consequences are divided into three areas. The first, termed “the sedimentation of global inequality,” relates to the fact that once poverty becomes entrenched in an area, it is typically very difficult to reverse. One of the consequences of global inequality is the low level of industrialization in peripheral nations. What they do have often represents the outdated castoffs of core nations or the factories and means of production owned by core nations. The peripheral nations typically have unstable governments, inadequate social programs, and are economically dependent on core nations for jobs and aid. Another consequence of global inequality is that the workers in peripheral countries do not enjoy the same privileges and rights as U.S. workers.
OER Text Materials Understanding and Changing the Social World, Section 18.1Section 1, while brief, provides a fine overview of the sociological perspective on health and is appropriate for an introduction to sociology course. The three major sociological perspectives are applied to health in a clear and concise way. Key sociological concepts, such as Parson’s sick role, are introduced throughout the theory section. There is a lack of material on the social construction of health and illness. Supplemental material should address this topic as it is important to understanding health from a sociological perspective.
OER Text Materials Sociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, Section: 18.1Chapter 18 begins with a great illustration of how social class impacts health. Section 1 then begins by defining health and medicine. A sociological perspective on health is provided, which includes an introduction to the importance of social location as well as social structure in determining the health of individuals and health outcomes within societies. This section, while brief, provides a fine overview of the sociological perspective on health and is appropriate for an introduction to sociology course. The three major sociological perspectives are applied to health in a clear and concise way. Key sociological concepts, such as Parson’s sick role, are introduced throughout the theory section. There is a lack of material on the social construction of health and illness. Supplemental material should address this topic as it is important to understanding health from a sociological perspective. Additionally, in the conflict theory portion of section 1, there is a very brief discussion of medicalization. Instructors interested in discussing this topic should consider supplementing with other resources.
OER Text MaterialsUnderstanding and Changing the Social World, Section: 18.4Section 4 summarizes medicine and healthcare in the U.S. This section begins with a brief history of medicine in the U.S. It then moves to a discussion of healthcare as an industry and gives a basic overview of the U.S. healthcare system. This overview is approachable and appropriate for an introduction to sociology course. Some issues with U.S. healthcare, such as lack of insurance, shortage of providers, lack of sleep of physicians and racial and gender differences in care, are presented. A major weakness of this section is that there is not mention of the Affordable Care Act. This is a major deficiency and quickly dates the material in the chapter. The chapter appears to cover too much and in doing so does not cover any topic very carefully. Instructors should be cautioned to encourage critical thinking around the issues presented in this section. Also missing from both sections is the relationship between culture and health.
OER Text MaterialsSociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, Section: 18.3Section 3 outlines the impact of social class, race and gender on health. This section is a social epidemiological view of health and illness. The section on gender and health does a nice job discussing the impact of masculinity on health. The section concludes with a discussion of mental illness and focuses on gender differences in mental illness.
OER Text MaterialsSociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, Section: 18.2Section 2 begins by summarizing international disparities in health and illness. Several tables and figures illustrate these disparities, but some of these are fairly dated, for example one figure is based on data from 2004. The section concludes with a brief discussion of healthcare in industrialized nations. This section focuses on a brief description of differences in who pays for healthcare across countries. A notable weakness of this chapter is a lack of discussion of the relationship between culture and health and cross-cultural competency.
OER Text MaterialUnderstanding Social ChangeTypes of Collective Behavior Sociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, 20.1 & 21.1The first part of the 20.1 section of Sociology defines social change. This text does not discuss other forms of collective behavior. Section 21.1 defines collective behavior and identifies different forms of collective behavior, including types of crowds, protests and riots. This section defines social movements and discusses disasters, rumors, mass hysteria, moral panics, and fads and crazes.
OER Text materialSocial MovementsSociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, 21.3.2 addresses ideas of why social movements emerged, including shared discontent, structural strain, relative deprivation, resource mobilization and political opportunity theory.
OER Text materialSocial MovementsIntroduction to Sociology 2e, OpenStax, 21.2.4. This section discusses the stages of a social movement, and other theoretical perspectives on social movements, including a more detailed discussion on framing than tends to be the case. It also provides a limited introduction to new social movement theory.
OER Text materialSocial MovementsSociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, 21.3.1This section defines social movements and describes reform, revolutionary, reform, political, reactionary movements, self-help, and religious movements.
OER Text MaterialsSociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, Section: 15.2Section 2 applies the three sociological perspectives to the family. A great summary chart is provided at the beginning of the chapter.
OER Text MaterialSociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, Section: 15.6Section 6 covers violence against intimates, dating violence on campus and child abuse. This is an OK overview for an introduction to sociology course.
Sociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, Sections: 15.3-15.5Section 3 defines marriage and discusses trends related to the marriage in the U.S. and cross-nationally. Section 4 outlines changes and issues affecting American families. Section 4 includes a discussion of cohabiation, working mothers, Section 5 4 styles of parenting and briefly discusses spanking. Also differences in parenting styles by social class, with a focus on views on spanking, is presented.
OER Text MaterialsSociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, Section: 15.1The chapter starts with a definition of family and other definition of key terms related to family arrangements such as nuclear and extended family. Family arrangements across cultures are briefly presented. Considerable attention is given to changes in the American family over time and is organized into key periods such as during and after industrialization. This is a great historical overview of American families.