Subject:
Manufacturing
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Tags:
Engineering, Manufacturing, Oet0102
Language:
English
Media Formats:
eBook

Business Insights and Careers

Introduction to Manufacturing and Careers

Introduction to Manufacturing and Careers (link to multiple resources)

Vitamix Company--Introduction to Leadership (video)

Jergens--Management of Inventory (video)

Transcripts created by Tulsa Community College from content created by 180 Skills LLC

An Inside Look at Manufacturing

 Manufacturing is the engine that fuels our economy. The manufacturing industry provides the products we need to live as well as rewarding and challenging careers,

 An Inside Look at Manufacturing

Manufacturing provides the products we need in every aspect of our lives. In this chapter, you will get an inside look at manufacturing and how important it is to our economy.

At the end of this chapter, you will be able to

  • Define manufacturing
  • Describe the importance of manufacturing
  • Describe how manufacturing impacts people and the environment
  • Identify the challenges and rewards of working in manufacturing
  • Identify different types of manufacturers

Manufacturing Defined

  • What is Manufacturing?
  • Manufacturing is the process of transforming raw materials into finished or semi-finished products using machines, tools, and labor.

 Why is manufacturing important?

  • Manufacturing supplies the products we use every day.
  • Look around you. Your cell phone, laptop, car, food, and clothes are all manufactured items.
  • Manufacturing makes it possible for us to work, play, travel, eat, and communicate.
  • Unless it comes from Mother Nature, most of the things you use are manufactured.

Life Without Manufacturing

  • Can you imagine living without the products you use every day?
  • What would you do without your car, cell phone, house, refrigerator, and your favorite foods?
  • Without manufacturing you would be living in the dark ages without lights, heat, cars, cell phones, computers, clothes, and packaged foods.

Manufacturing Provides Jobs

  • Besides increasing our quality of life by providing products we need, manufacturing is one of the world’s largest employers, employing nearly 62 million people worldwide.
  • In the U.S., about 17.2 million people were employed in manufacturing in 2010.
  • Manufacturing companies employee people in a variety of disciplines including
    • Production
    • Engineering
    • Marketing, sales & customer support
    • Information Technology
    • Finance
    • Human Resources
    • Management
  • In addition, about 4.7 million service sector jobs depend on manufacturing.

Why Work in Manufacturing?

  • Better Pay and Benefits
    • Manufacturers provide better pay and benefits than other industries. The total compensation for manufacturing employees is approximately 17 percent higher than those of other industries.
  • More Challenging Careers
    • Global competition and an increased emphasis on quality require employees who are creative problem solvers.
  • Highly Desired Skills & Training
    • Advances in manufacturing equipment, materials, and processes has increased the need for highly skilled employees. Manufacturers fund training to help employees gain the skills they need to succeed.

Manufacturing Strengthens the Economy

  • Manufacturing is the engine that drives the economy.
  • Besides generating jobs, manufacturing generates wealth.
  • For every $1 spent on manufacturing, $1.48 is put back into the economy.
  • This means that the manufacturing company, as well as its employees, buys goods and services within the community, further strengthening the economy.

Manufacturing is Green

  • Manufacturing plays a critical role on solving environmental challenges faced by our word today.  Manufacturing companies are designing new technologies and equipment for
    • Alternative energies
    • Reduced energy consumption
    • Reduced greenhouse gas emissions
  • In addition, U.S. manufacturers are reducing their footprint on the environment by
    • Recycling materials in production
    • Reducing energy consumption
    • Reducing air and water contamination.

 

Manufacturing Provides New Technology

  • Manufacturing companies fund 2/3 of the research and development conducted in the US.
  • The money invested in research and development has contributed to the creation of new products and technologies as well as improvements to existing products and technology.
  • Have you ever thought about how your smart phone evolved from a telephone?
  • Research and development will continue to advance the products and technology of today to create the products of tomorrow.
  • Can you imagine what smart phones will be like in 10 years?

Other Industries Need Manufacturing

  • How would buildings be built without bulldozers, hammers, drywall, nails, paint, and all the other items required in construction?
  • How could airline companies and airports operate without jets, baggage carousels, air traffic control equipment, and ticket kiosks?
  • Manufacturing provides the materials, tools, and equipment needed by other industries.

Types of Manufactures

  • There are over 760,000 manufacturing companies throughout the U.S.
  • Manufacturing companies are located in large cities as well as small towns.
  • Some manufacturers are large, employing thousands of employees, while others only employ a few.
  • About half of the people employed in US manufacturing work for small companies with less than 500 employees.

Suppliers vs. Manufacturers of Finished Goods

  • Some manufacturers produce finished goods to be sold directly to consumers.
  • Other manufacturers, called suppliers or vendors, only produce parts and materials to be used by other manufacturing companies.
  • Some manufacturers are suppliers as well as manufacturers of finished goods.

Manufacturing Sub-industries

There are many manufacturing sub-industries including

  • Food & Beverage
  • Textiles
  • Wood & Paper
  • Chemicals
  • Petroleum & Coal
  • Plastics & Rubber
  • Primary & Fabricated Metals
  • Manufacturing Machinery
  • Appliances & Electrical Products
  • Transportation
  • Medical, Precision, & Optical Products
  • Computers & Electronic Products

Click on the boxes to learn more about each manufacturing sub-industry.

I did not add the information about each of the subindustries.

Where Do You Fit In?

  • As you learned in this chapter, manufacturing companies are almost as diverse as the products they produce.
  • Was there a particular manufacturing industry that caught your attention?
  • Can you see yourself helping to produce a miniature smart phone, luxury jumbo jet, or the complex manufacturing equipment used to produce these products and others?

Things to remember

  • Manufacturing is the process of transforming raw materials into finished or semi-finished products using machines, tools, and labor.
  • Manufacturing provides the products we need to work, play, travel, and communicate.
  • Manufacturing strengthens our economy and provides jobs to millions of Americans.
  • Manufacturing jobs require advanced skills and provide higher pay than other industries.
  • Some manufacturers are suppliers or vendors for other manufacturing companies.
  • There are many manufacturing sub-industries which produce the products that consumers and other industries need.

An Inside Look at Manufacturing

In this chapter, you have learned how manufacturing impacts our economy and provides the products we need in every aspect of our lives. You also explored the different types of manufacturing companies.

 

Introduction to Manufacturing Careers-History

Transcripts created by Tulsa Community College from content created by 180 Skills LLC

The History of Manufacturing

The history of manufacturing examines the discovery of new technologies and methods which have advanced manufacturing systems over the past three centuries.

Since the 1700's, manufacturing has driven the American economy. Over the centuries, it has evolved from individual craftsman who created one-of-a-kind products to large organizations capable of mass production. The history of manufacturing is an interesting story that will change your perception of manufacturing.

At the end of this chapter, you will be able to

•           Identify major developments in the history of manufacturing

•           Explain how history has influenced manufacturing today

•           Describe characteristics of advanced manufacturing

•           Describe advanced technologies used in manufacturing today

 

Manufacturing Before 1700

Before the industrial revolution, the majority of the economy involved agriculture.

 

During this time, manufactured goods were not mass produced or readily available. Skilled craftsman made one-of-a-kind products by hand or with simple tools.

 

How did our economy more from craftsman making goods at home to the huge manufacturing facilities of today?

 

The Industrial Revolution (1760-1860)

 

The Industrial Revolution changed many aspects of life including manufacturing, transportation, and communication.

 

It began in England and marked the change from an economy based on agriculture and handicraft to one based on industry and manufacturing.

 

During this period, machines and methods were invented that led to the creation of factories capable of producing large quantities of goods.

 

Key developments included

  • Watt's steam engine
  • Machine tools
  • Invention of the spinning jenny
  • Interchangeable parts
  • Creation of the factory system

 

Watt's Steam Engine

 

The steam engine was originally invented in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen. James Watt increased the efficiency of the original design and made it capable of directly driving rotary machinery found in factories and textile mills.

 

This reduced the dependency on water and wind powered factories, allowing factories to be built anywhere.

 

The steam engine not only supplied power to factories, but it also revolutionized transportation with steam-powered trains and ships. This allowed goods to be distributed farther and faster than ever before.

 

Machine Tools

 

The development of early machine tools began with John Wilkinson's boring machine in 1775 which was used to bore the cylinder on Watt's steam engine.

 

The development of additional machine tools capable of turning, drilling, milling, and shaping enabled metal parts to be manufactured easily and accurately.

 

The development of machine tools made it possible to build larger and more powerful engines and production equipment.

 

Spinning Jenny

 

Before the industrial revolution, creating thread for sewing and making clothes was a slow process. Spinning wheels were used at home to create one twist of thread at a time.

 

The spinning jenny, invented by James Hargreaves in 1764, enabled eight threads to be spun at once. This lead to the creation of mechanized textile factories.

 

Textile mills were some of the earliest manufacturing facilities.

 

Interchangeable Parts

 

The traditional method for making assemblies was to custom fabricate each part and hand-fit the parts together. This required a lot of time and skill.

 

In the late eighteenth century, the concept of interchangeable parts, identical parts that can be used in any assembly of the same type, was invented using special machines, fixtures, and measuring equipment.

 

This allowed relatively unskilled workers to produce large quantities of parts which could be assembled without special filing or fitting. It also reduced costs and made it easier to repair and replace parts.

 

Interchangeable parts production came to be known as the American System of Manufacture and paved the way for the mass production of goods.

  • Gun manufacturers were some of the first to adopt the concept of interchangeable parts. This was driven by the need to produce thousands of firearms for the War of 1812 and the Civil War.

 

The Factory System

Steam power, machines tools, and interchangeable parts gave birth to the factory system.

 

Characteristics of the factory system include

  • Larger production volumes
  • Mechanized production and division of labor instead of craftsman labor
  • Lower cost
  • Product uniformity s Steady supply of goods

 

Industrial Revolution Part 2 (1860-1914)

Some historians identify the time period after the industrial revolution until the first world war as the second industrial revolution. This time period is also referred to as the technical revolution and the scientific revolution.

Key developments include

  • Bessemer process for more efficient steel production
  • Scientific management to improve the methods of production workers
  • Mass production and Henry Ford's assembly line
  • Electrification of factories

In addition, industry began to fund research during this period. The chemical industry led the way resulting in the discovery of new chemicals, plastics, and medicines.

 

Manufacturing During the World Wars

Both World Wars increased the need for manufacturing.

 

During World War I, the decline in European exports led to an increased demand for American products in many parts of the world, doubling exports from 1913-1916.

 

The demand for steel production as well as the demand for planes, ships, and munitions greatly increased during both wars. American factories were converted for wartime production. During World War II, 769,000 airplanes were manufactured.

 

Opportunities for production workers expanded greatly in Northern factories. Many southerners moved from the rural South to the urban North to work in the factories that fueled the war

 

Post War Consumerism

World War II strengthened the United States' ability to produce products. After the war, global demand for U.S. products increased greatly.

This boom helped create a condition called consumerism which meant that Americans could now afford to buy products beyond the bare necessities.

 

The increased capacity of the wartime factories was now used to produce televisions, cars, appliances, homes, and clothes in record numbers.

 

What is manufacturing like today?

Increased global competition and new technology have played a role in the continued evolution of manufacturing.

 

Manufacturers must employ advanced manufacturing to compete in today's global market place.

What is advanced manufacturing?

 

Advanced manufacturing, sometimes called high-performance manufacturing, rapidly transfers science and technology to improve its' products, processes, and methods. Key characteristics of advanced manufacturing include

  • Increased productivity
  • Computers and advanced technology used in all areas of production
  • Increased emphasis on employee skill development

 

Increased Productivity

To be competitive in the global market place, manufacturing companies must increase their productivity.

 

What is productivity?

 

Productivity is the rate at which a company produces goods or services in relation to the amount of materials, money, and employees needed to produce the goods or services.

 

Manufacturers use many methods to increase their productivity including

  • Implementing standardized work practices
  • Increasing the efficiency of production equipment
  • Reducing defects and rework
  • Implementing advanced technologies to streamline and automate processes

 

Computer Integration and Advanced Technology

From design to distribution, computers and advanced technologies are used in every aspect of producing a product.

 

Key technologies include

  • Computer Numeric Control (CNC)
  • Computer Aided Design (CAD)
  • Robotics
  • Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM)
  • Rapid Prototyping
  • Flexible Manufacturing Systems
  • Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)
  • Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
  • Emerging Technologies

 

The machine tools of the industrial revolution lave evolved into computer numeric controlled machines capable of storing multiple programs or manufacturing multiple parts.

 

Computer Aided Design, or CAD, is used to create detailed product models and prints. Product changes and design alternatives can be quickly generated and compared with the use of CAD.

 

Some people are afraid that industrial robots will displace humans from desirable jobs. Actually, industrial robots are used for jobs which are one of the three D's (dull, dirty, or dangerous) or one of the three H’s (hot, heavy, or hazardous).

 

Computer aided manufacturing, or CAM, involves the use of computers to assist in all phases of manufacturing including plant layout, process planning, quality control, and programming for numerical control and industrial robots.

 

Rapid prototyping uses CAD data to rapidly fabricate a model of a part with 3D printing technology and other methods. Small quantities of production quality parts can be manufactured with rapid prototyping.

 

A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) integrates all of the major elements of production into a highly automated system including the CNC machines and material handling systems. These systems can handle a variety of part configurations and produce them in any order.

 

Computer integrated manufacturing goes beyond CAM and FMS to include the integration of all aspects of manufacturing including design, process planning, production, distribution, and the management of the entire manufacturing organization.

 

 

Electronic data interchange is a method for transferring data between computer systems and networks. It is used for e-commerce and allows companies to transfer data between their suppliers, buyers, distributors, and others.

 

Newer technologies which are shaping the future of manufacturing today include nanotechnology, advanced materials, green production methods, alternative energy sources, expert systems, and simulation software used in product design as well as process design.

 

Increased Emphasis on Employee Skills

As you learned in this chapter, advanced manufacturing companies are focused on increasing productivity and implementing advanced technologies in every aspect of production.

 

To be successful, they must train their employees on how to continuously improve production processes and methods which will in turn, increase productivity.

 

Manufacturers must also ensure employees have the advanced skills to operate and maintain the high tech production equipment used in manufacturing today.

 

Are you ready to step into the challenging and rewarding environment of advanced manufacturing?

 

Things to remember

  • Manufacturing evolved during the industrial revolution with the invention of Wattt's steam engine, machine tools, the cotton jenny, interchangeable parts, and the factory system.
  • Additional discoveries including the Bessemer steel production process, scientific management to improve the methods of production workers, mass production, Henry Ford's assembly line, and electrification of factories advanced manufacturing even further during a second industrial revolution also known as the scientific or technical revolution.
  • The increased need for steel, munitions, planes, and other items needed during World War I and II increased the need for manufacturing.
  • Increased wealth and manufacturing led to consumerism after World War II which increased the demand and manufacture of consumer items like appliances, cars, and clothing.
  • The characteristics of advanced manufacturing companies include increased emphases on quality and employee skills as well as adopting advanced technologies in all areas of production.
  • Advanced technologies used in manufacturing today include CNC, CAD, CAM, rapid prototyping, robotics, CIM, FMS, and EDI.    

 

History of Manufacturing

 

In this chapter, you have learned about the major developments in the history of manufacturing. You have also learned how to describe the characteristics of advanced manufacturing.

 

Introduction to Manufacturing – Chapter 2 (Transcripts created by Tulsa Community College from content created by 180 Skills LLC)

Quality Standards and Regulations

 

Quality, Standards, and Regulations

Transcripts created by Tulsa Community College from content created by 180 Skills LLC

Quality, standards, and regulations are   critical elements of product design and manufacturing. Each one has a unique role in terms of product functionality,   reliability, and safety.

At the end of this chapter, you will be able to

  • Define quality, standards, and regulations

  ▪ Explain the relationship between quality, standards, and regulations

  • Describe how regulations and standards affect manufacturers

  • Explain how customer expectations affect manufacturers

  • Describe the role of standards organizations

  • Describe the role of OSHA and other regulatory agencies

Quality Defined

  • Hardly a day goes by without someone mentioning the word quality. People want quality of life, quality food, and quality products.

  • What is quality?

    • Quality is a measure of excellence. Quality products are free from defects and significant variations.

How is Quality Important to Consumers?

  • How do you feel when a product you purchase breaks or does not perform as you expected?

  • Will you buy that product again? Will you buy that brand again? 

    • Consumers expect products to perform as advertised. They expect quality.

How is Quality Important to Manufacturers?

  • When products have poor quality, consumers will stop purchasing the product and may lose confidence in the company that manufactured the product.

  • Manufacturing companies who produce products with poor quality run the risk of decreased sales and going out of business.

How is Quality Determined?

  • The expectation of excellence or quality for a given product or process is determined by

    • Customer expectations

    • Standards

    • Regulations

Customer Expectations and Quality

  • Customer's expectations of quality can vary widely for a given product.

  • For example, consider the quality expected in a car. Some people will want fuel economy or a roomy interior, while others will value upgrades such as leather seats, a guidance system, and a DVD player.

Expectations Become Specifications

  • Customer expectations will be determined through marketing research then translated into specifications for the given product by engineers. 

  • Specifications are detailed descriptions of the acceptable limits allowed for different aspects of a product or process.

Standards and Quality

  • What are standards and what role do they play in determining quality?\

  • Standards are something considered by general consent as a basis or model for comparison.

  • Standards give specifications for products, quality systems, production systems, and other business operations. 

  • Standards are used to ensure products and processes meet the requirements of the intended application.

How are Standards Determined?

  • Standards organizations produce standards by using a group of subject matter and industry experts. The experts determine and produce the standards.

  • Some standards organizations, such as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), produce international standards.

  • International standards ensure consistent quality for a given product or process across the globe so that products manufactured in one country can be purchased and used in another country.

  • ISO standards are used in many countries and by many different industries including, but not limited to, medical device, telecommunications, aerospace, and automotive.

Industry and Country Specific Standards

  • Some standards are industry specific. Industry specific standards can be international such as the International Electrotechnical (IEC) standards for electrical and electronic products and processes.

  • Country specific standards dictate standards for a particular country. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) produces thousands of standards for American companies in all industrial sectors. ANSI also serves as a U.S. representative to the International Standards Organization (ISO).

  • Some standards are specific to a particular industry and country such as the standards produced by the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) which are used by U.S. builders, architects, and engineers.

Regulations and Quality

  • What are regulations and what role do they play in determining quality? 

  • Like standards and customer expectations, regulations become quality specifications for products and processes. 

  • Unlike standards and customer expectations, regulations are mandatory and are legally enforced.

  • Regulations are determined and enforced by regulatory bodies which are also known as regulatory agencies and regulatory authorities.

Regulatory Agencies

  • Some regulatory agencies produce and enforce industry specific regulations.

  • An example of an industry specific regulatory agency is the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA enforces regulations pertaining to food, medications, and medical devices.

  • Some regulatory agencies produce and enforce regulations that apply to all industries like the Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA). OSHA produces and enforces regulations to guarantee safe and healthy working conditions in the U.S. 

Quality Specifications & Procedures

  • Companies define quality based on customer expectations, standards, and regulations.

  • This is accomplished by incorporating the customer expectations, standards, and regulations into product and process specifications and quality procedures.

Who is Responsible for Ensuring Quality?

  • Everyone is responsible for ensuring product and process quality from top level management to the newest production employee.

  • As a manufacturing employee, you will be required to train on your company's quality procedures.

  • You may also be asked to serve on a quality team to create new quality procedures or improve existing quality procedures.

  • Quality is everyone's responsibility.

  • What role will you play in ensuring and improving quality?

Things to remember

  • Quality is a measure of excellence. Quality products are free from defects    and significant variations.

  • Standards are something considered by general consent as a basis or model for comparison.

  • Standards organizations establish standards for products and processes.

  • Regulations are mandatory and are legally enforced.

  • Regulatory agencies determine and enforce regulations.

  • OSHA is a regulatory agency that creates and enforces regulations to guarantee safe and healthy working conditions.

  • Customer expectations, standards, and regulations are incorporated into the quality procedures of companies.

 

 • Everyone in a manufacturing company is responsible for learning and

   following quality procedures to ensure the quality of products and 

   processes.


 

Quality, Standards, and Regulations

 

In this chapter, you have learned how customer expectations, standards, and regulations 

determine the quality needed for products and processes. You have also learned how 

important quality is to customers and manufacturing companies.

 

Manufacturing Careers Overview

Learning Outcome: Identify careers available to students in manufacturing

Advanced Manufacturing | Degrees that Work | PBS LearningMedia

The program features a group of manufacturing students, who possess the hands-on, high-tech skills desired by manufacturers. The students test their skills by designing and building an off-road vehicle for an exciting international competition in Quebec: Baja SAE Montreal. In addition to chronicling the students' preparation and performance at the event, the episode provides an inside view of manufacturing with representatives from the National Association of Manufacturers, the nation's largest industrial trade organization, and Synthes and Victaulic, two leading worldwide manufacturers.


 

New Trends in Manufacturing | What's Up in Factories? | PBS LearningMedia

New trends in manufacturing include processes such as built-in quality, kaizen and kanban as part of the innovative concept of lean production conceived by Japanese automotive manufacturers. In this video these new manufacturing trends are demonstrated in the Honda Manufacturing Plant of Alabama. We learn how mass production is a “push” system and lean production is a “pull” system. Honda associates discuss processes similar to kanban and kaizen and how they improve efficiency, product quality, and result in a happier workforce.


 

Career Gates: Manufacturing | PBS LearningMedia

Career Gates: Manufacturing is a discussion by various employees of Rexroth, Just Born Candy, Coca-Cola and Martin Guitars or what their jobs and responsibilities are. Steve Morrow, General Manager of the Coca-Cola plant begins the tour, followed by Ross Born from Just Born Candy. Products highlighted are Just Born Peeps, Martin Guitars, and Coca-Cola sodas. The last section highlights what these employers look for when evaluating employees that will be hired.

WLVT PBS 39, The Lehigh Valley Workforce Investment Board and CareerLink Lehigh Valley have teamed to create these innovative video clips about various careers around the Lehigh Valley. The concept is to provide an awareness about upcoming businesses and career opportunities in the Lehigh Valley.

 

Careers in Plastics | PBS LearningMedia

Learn about career opportunities in the plastics industry in this video segment adapted from Pennsylvania College of Technology and WVIA. Visit NPE: The International Plastics Showcase, the biggest plastics gathering in the world, and meet some people from the industry. Hear how different academic degrees can lead to different types of positions within the plastics industry. In addition, learn how emerging technologies such as recycling and bioplastics are a part of the sustainability and environmental movement.













 

Attribution: PBS Learning Media