Plants have evolved different reproductive strategies for the continuation of their species. Some plants reproduce sexually, and others asexually, in contrast to animal species, which rely almost exclusively on sexual reproduction. Plant sexual reproduction usually depends on pollinating agents, while asexual reproduction is independent of these agents. Flowers are often the showiest or most strongly scented part of plants. With their bright colors, fragrances, and interesting shapes and sizes, flowers attract insects, birds, and animals to serve their pollination needs. Other plants pollinate via wind or water; still others self-pollinate. This module will explore these ideas as well as their impacts on human ventures such as agriculture and horticulture.
Learning Objectives (Biology II TAGs)
II.6: Describe and contrast reproduction and development in plant and animal systems.
Recommended Textbook Resources
OpenStax: Biology 2e
The length of time from the beginning of development to the death of a plant is called its life span. The life cycle, on the other hand, is the sequence of stages a plant goes through from seed germination to seed production of the mature plant. Some plants, such as annuals, only need a few weeks to grow, produce seeds and die. Other plants, such as the bristlecone pine, live for thousands of years. Chapter 32, Plant Reproduction, will provide a detailed description of the reproductive structures and processes found within plants life cycles as well as life spans.
Student Assessment Activities
Student Assessment Activities are below; instructors can also Download a Plant Reproduction Activities Word File or View the Plant Reproduction Student Activity Google Doc.
Complete the end of the chapter “Review Questions”. Make sure to answer each question thoroughly and include page numbers from the text where the answers can be found. Be prepared to discuss your answers in a group setting during class.
Complete the end of the chapter “Critical Thinking Questions” according to your group number. You will be sharing your responses with members from the other groups during class. (This is a modified “Jigsaw” method. To use this “Jigsaw” have everyone meet in their groups for a specified amount of time. While they are discussing their responses/ideas separate everyone into new groups so that each new group has a representative from the original group. Have the new groups meet for a specified amount of time to share their responses/ideas. This way each person holds a piece of the overall puzzle.)
Group 1: 16-18
Group 2: 19-21
Group 3: 22-23
Group 4: 24-25
Divide the class into small groups. Assign each group to work with monocots or dicots. Every group will use their resources (textbook, notes, internet, etc.) to create a PPT that fully describes their assigned topic. Their PPT should contain descriptive text and visual aids (pictures, diagrams, videos, etc.). They can share their PPT through their school’s LMS or Google Docs.
Create a diagram or table that compares the reproductive methods of angiosperms and gymnosperms. (Include gamete formation, pollination, seed development, and seed dispersal.) Then answer the following questions…
- What are the evolutionary benefits of the reproductive methods of angiosperms? Gymnosperms?
- Why are angiosperms able to utilize animal pollinators while gymnosperms are not?
- Based on reproductive strategies, would angiosperms or gymnosperms be better suited for colder climates? Why?
- Would you consider cones or fruits to be the more advanced evolutionary development? Why?
Create a research paper over the impacts of artificial asexual reproduction on agriculture and industry or the impacts of decreasing populations of honeybees (CCD) on agriculture and industry.