The Introduction to Sociology Course was developed through the Ohio Department of Higher Education OER Innovation Grant. This work was completed and the course was posted in September 2018. The course is part of the Ohio Transfer Module and is also named OSS021. For more information about credit transfer between Ohio colleges and universities, please visit: www.ohiohighered.org/transfer.Team LeadIrene Petten Columbus State Community CollegeContent Contributors Dee Malcuit Clark State Community CollegeKwaku Oboso-Mensah Lorain County Community CollegeAnjel Stough-Hunter Ohio Dominican UniversityLibrarianSherri Saines Ohio UniversityReview TeamEric Jorrey Central Ohio Technical College
OER Text materialTheoretical Perspectives on CultureChapter 3, subsection 3.4. According to functionalists, societies need culture to exist. Cultural norms function to support the fluid operation of society, and cultural values guide people in making choices. In addition, culture exists to meet its members’ basic needs. Conflict theorists view social structure as inherently unequal, based on power differentials related to issues like class, gender, race, and age. For a conflict theorist, culture is seen as reinforcing issues of "privilege" for certain groups based upon race, sex, class, etc. Symbolic interactionism is mostly concerned with the face-to-face interactions between members of society. Interactionists see culture as being created and maintained by the ways people interact and in how individuals interpret each other’s actions.
OER Text materialWhat is Culture?Chapter 3, subsection 3.1Culture is defined as shared beliefs, values, and practices, that participants in a society must learn. Sociologically, we examine in what situation and context certain behavior is expected, and in which situations perhaps it is not. Rules are created and enforced by people who interact and share culture. Culture consists of thoughts (expectations about personal space, for example) and tangible things (bus stops, trains, and seating capacity).General Comments:Types of sanction should be clearly identifiedSymbol should be defined in more detail. It should be made clear that symbols, like the American flag, represent something else. Thus, the American flag is not just a piece of cloth; rather, it represents American pride, etc.
OER Text materialElements of CultureChapter 3, subsection 3.2. This learning objective is addressed variously in the chapter. For example, under elements of culture, beliefs, values, idea culture, real culture, norms, etc. are addressed. Values are defined as a culture’s standard for discerning what is good and just in society. Values are deeply embedded and critical for transmitting and teaching a culture’s beliefs. Beliefs are the tenets or convictions that people hold to be true.
OER Text materialCultural ChangeChapter 3, subsection 3.3. The concepts of innovation, discovery, and invention are used to explain cultural change. An innovation refers to an object or concept’s initial appearance in society—it is innovative because it is markedly new. There are two types of innovation: discovery and invention. Discoveries make known previously unknown but existing aspects of reality. Inventions result when something new is formed from existing objects or concepts—when things are put together in an entirely new manner.
This objective is lacking in the main text. Please see the recommended reading by the chapter author below in Section 1.
OER Text materialWhat Is Culture? Chapter 3, subsection 3.1. A subsection of this section notes that culture consists of thoughts (expectations about personal space, for example) and tangible things (bus stops, trains, and seating capacity). Then material culture is defined as the objects or belongings of a group of people. Examples of material culture are given as metro passes, bus tokens, automobiles, stores, and the physical structures where people worship. Nonmaterial culture, in contrast, consists of the ideas, attitudes, and beliefs of a society. Material and nonmaterial aspects of culture are linked, and physical objects often symbolize cultural ideas. A metro pass is a material object, but it represents a form of nonmaterial culture, namely, capitalism, and the acceptance of paying for transportation. Clothing, hairstyles, and jewelry are part of material culture, but the appropriateness of wearing certain clothing for specific events reflects nonmaterial culture. It is noted that material and nonmaterial aspects of culture can vary subtly from region to region. As people travel farther afield, moving from different regions to entirely different parts of the world, certain material and nonmaterial aspects of culture become dramatically unfamiliar.